Effect of Glutamine Addition in Maturation Stage on the Germination and Plantlet Conversion of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Somatic Embryo

Totik Sri Mariani, Arry Setya Purnaning, Dan Sjafrul Latif

Abstract


The enhancement of oil palm productivity due to increasing of world demand should be supported by stocks of good quality seedling. Besides from the seed, recently the oil palm seedling has been produced through micropropagation of oil palm. The method of oil palm somatic embryogenesis could provide seedling in large quantity with minimum genetic variation. However, there is still a problem in embrio germination and plantlet conversion due to immature somatic embryo. In this study, we performed evaluation of the effect of glutamine amino acid in maturation stage on germination and plantlet conversion of somatic embryo. In addition, we also conducted histological evaluation of germinated somatic embryo by using light microscopy. The observation of germination and plantlet conversion was performed after incubating on the medium supplemented with glutamine for 3 weeks. The germination medium was without glutamine. The result showed that the highest germination percentage (82.5%) in germination medium for 10 weeks. This result after incubated on  the medium supplemented with 10 mM glutamine for 3 weeks. Whereas the conversion into plantlet was achieved on the medium supplemented with 20 mM glutamine.


Keywords


oil palm, somatic embryo, glutamine, germination, conversion

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References


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• Belgert, D.L. 2000. Management Strategies of Elaeis guineensis Oil Palm in Response to Localized Markets in South Eastern Ghana West Africa. Thesis Master of Science in Forestry. Michigan Technological University: Michigan

• Das Neves, L. O., Duque, S. R. L., de Almeda, J. S., Fevereiro, P. S. 1999. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis in Medicago truncatula ssp. Narbonensis and M. truncatula Gaertn cv. Jemalong. Plant Cell Report. 18: 398-405

• Dodeman, V. L., Ducreux, G., dan Kreis, M., 1997. Zigotic Embryogenesis Versus Somatic Embryogenesis. Journal of Experimental Botany. 48(313): 1493-1509

• Edem, D.O. 2002. Palm Oil : Biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and toxicological aspects: A review. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 57: 319–341

• Ginting, G dan D.L. Ginting. 2007. Peningkatan produksi kelapa sawit menggunakan material klon. Jurnal Penelitian Kelapa Sawit 15 (1), 1-20.

• Hamasaki, R. M., Purgatto, E., dan Mercier, H., 2005. Glutamine Enhance Competence for Organogenesis in Pineapple Leaves Cultivated In Vitro.Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 17(4): 383

• Herman, E. M., Larkins, B. A. 1999. Protein Storage Bodies and Vacuoles The Plant Cell. 11: 601-613.

• Jolliffe, N. A., Craddock, C. P., dan Frigerio, L. 2005. Pathways for Protein Transport to Seed Storage Vacuoles. Biochemical Society Transactions. 33(5):1016-1018

• Latif, S. 2003. The oil Palm Clone Performance in the Northern Part of Sumatera : Recovery of Mantled Fruit and Productivity. Paper presented at ISOPB Conference held in Hotel Grand Angkasa Medan, 6-9 October 2003.

• Latif, S. 2004. Keragaan dan produktivitas klon kelapa sawit asal kultur jaringan di Sumatera Bagian Utara. Jurnal Penelitian Kelapa Sawit 12 (1), 11-24.

• Măhönen, A. P. 2005. Cytokinins Regulate Vascular Morphogenesis in the Arabidopsis thaliana root. Academic Dissertation. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Division of Genetics.

• Morcillo, F., Aberlenc-Bertossi, F., Noirot, M., Hamon, S., dan Duval, Y. 1999. Differential Effect of Glutamine and Arginine on 7S Globulin Accumulation during The Maturation of Oil Palm Somatic Embryos. Plant Cell Reports. 18: 868-872

• Oilworld 2010 dan http://www.asiabiomass.jp/english/topics/1006_01.html

• Soh, W. Y., Bhojwani, S. S., dan Lee, S. 1999. Development and Structural Aspect of Root Organogenesis, In: Soh, W. Y., and Bhojwani, S. S. (Editors): Morfogenesis in Plant Tissue Culture, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Netherland. 133-169.

• Subronto dan D Asmono. 2000. Aplikasi Bioteknologi Dalam Bidang Prapanen Untuk Meningkatkan Produktivitas Industri Kelapa Sawit. Warta PPKS 8 (2), 69-77.

• Woodward, A. W. dan Bartel, B. 2005. Auxin: Regulation, Action, and Interaction, Annals of Botany. 95: 707-735


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