Anthropometric Characteristics and Mineral Distribution and Contamination in Artisanal Small-scale Gold Mining Site of Ciguha in Gunung Pongkor, Bogor
Keywords:Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), contamination level, mineral, ciguha
AbstractCiguha in Gunung Pongkor, Bogor, had been an artisanal and small-scale gold mining site (ASGM) since 1998 where amalgamations were used intensively leading to pollution in water, soil, and foodstuffs. The present study assessed distribution and contamination level (CL) of minerals in a total of 69 environmental samples consisting of drinking water (n = 12), rice (n = 13), vegetable (n = 15), fruits (n = 5), fish (n = 14), and soil (n = 10). Chromium, iron, and manganese representing trace essential elements but toxic at high level, mercury representing heavy metal, arsenic representing toxic metalloid, and selenium representing essential metalloid which toxic at high level, were analyzed as mineral contaminants. Meanwhile, a total of 101 Ciguha residents consisting of 60 adults, 15 teenagers, and 26 school aged children were involved to charaterize athropometric exposure factors. The results shows that mercury has polluted soil, kangkung, thai squash, cassava leaves, and rice with contamination level (CL) of 604.43, 8.15, 6.01, 4.14, and 2.76 folds, respectively, while chromium has only polluted thai squash with CL of 1.18 folds. Amazingly, mercury distribution was only in the third position after iron and manganese, while the most distributed mineral was iron and the least was selenium. In overall environmental matrices, the detection frequencies of iron, manganese, mercury, chromium, arsenic, and selenium were 94.2, 56.2, 52.2, 47.8, 21.7, and 15.9 %, respectively. In conclusion, mercury was the most critical contaminant in ASGM site of Ciguha that has heavily polluted soil and grown vegetables, but the most distributed mineral was iron. Toxicologically, only mercury and chromium are important while arsenic, iron, manganese, and selenium are of less concern since the CL<1.
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