Concentration of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in Bus Drivers as a Biomarker of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) Exposure in Depok City, Indonesia
Keywords:Biomarker, PAH, 1-OHP, Bus Drivers, Depok, Indonesia
Transportation is a sector growing rapidly in urban areas in Indonesia. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a compound resulting from motor vehicle exhaust gases. Several types of PAHs and their metabolite results are classified carcinogenic to humans, and one of them is 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) compound. The objective of this study was to determine 1-OHP levels in bus driver urine at Depok bus station and determine the risk factors influencing the amount of 1-OHP in urine. Â The research design was cross-sectional involving two groups of 18 bus drivers and 16 workers of non-drivers as the comparator. Risk factors for the amount of 1-OHP in urine were analyzed using multiple linear regression data analysis. Â The results show that 1-OHP concentration in urine of driver group (0.51 mol/mol creatinine) is higher than non-driver group (12.29 mol/mol creatinine). Variables of occupation, education, number of cigarette consumption per day and type of cooking fuel have a significant relationship with the concentration of 1-OHP in urine (p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, it is found that the most dominant factors are education, occupation, income, number of cigarette consumption per day, use of PPE, consumption of roasted food, and type of cooking fuel. In conclusions, the concentration of 1-OHP in urine is significantly different between the respondent groups and influenced by several other individuals factors.
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