Effect of Aerobic Training on Physical Fitness in Children with Down Syndrome
Keywords:Down syndrome, physical fitness, aerobic exercises, aerobic capacity and maximum oxygen consumption.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an aerobic training program on physical fitness in children with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty DS children (8â€“12 years) Â were randomized to two equal groups, study group(A) and control group (B).
Procedure: Measurements of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), minute ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), exhaustion time, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by using an Ergo spirometer device were performed before and after 16 weeks of the treatment program. Group(A) received aerobic training exercise and group (B) didn't receive any training during this period.
Results: after 16 weeks training, extreme significant improvements in cardiovascular parameters were seen for the study group for VO2 max, VE, RER, FVC and FEV1 and only significant improvement in exhaustion time, while no significant change in peak physiologic parameters was seen in the control group (p< 0.05).
Conclusion: It is concluded that children with DS could improve their cardiovascular fitness when performing a well-designed aerobic training program.
Roizen NJ, Patterson D. Down syndrome. Lancet 2003; 361: 1281-9.
Pollock ML, Gaesser GA, Butcher JD, DesprÃ©s J-P, Dishman RK, Franklin BA, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:975-91.
Luke A, Roizen NJ, Sutton M, Schoeller DA. Energy expenditure in children with Down syndrome: Correcting metabolic rate for movement. J Pediatr 1994;125:829-38.
Am J Lifestyle Med. (2010). Aerobic Conditioning and Physical Activity.Sage Publications.
Uong E, McDonough J, Tayag-Kier C, Zhao H, Haselgrove J, Mahboubi S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway in children with Down syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:731-6.
McDowell K, Craven D. Pulmonary complications of Down syndrome during childhood. J Pediatr 2011;158:319-25.
Fernhall B, Miller AL. Tymeson GT, et al. Maximal exercise testing of mentally retarded adolescents and adults: reliability study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1990;71:1065â€“1068
Pitetti KH, Climstein M, Campbell KD, et al. The cardiovascular capacities of adults with Down syndrome. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 1992;24:13â€“19.
Blair SN, Kohl HW, Barlow CE, et al. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. JAMA. 1995;273:1093â€“1098.
American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society ATS/ERS Statement: Standardisation of lung function testing: Standardisation of spirometry. European Respiratory Journal, 2005 26: 319â€“338.
BRUCE RA. "Exercise Testing and Training of apparently Health Individuals: A handbook for physicians. Mosby, New York,1972; Pp:169-183.
Fernhall B, McCubbin JA, Pitetti KH, et al. Prediction of maximal heart rate in individuals with mental retardation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1655â€“1660.
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSMâ€™s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 6th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
Baynard T, Pitetti KH, Guerra M, Unnithan VB, Fernhall B. Age-related changes in aerobic capacity in individuals with mental retardation: a 20-yr review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(11):1984â€“1989.[PubMed]
Pastore E, Marino B, Calzolari A, Digilio MC, Giannotti A, Turchetta A. Clinical and cardiorespiratory assessment in children with Down syndrome without congenital heart disease. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 2000; 4:408-410
Carmeli E, Kessel S, Bar-Chad S, Merrick J. A comparison between older persons with Down syndrome and a control group: clinical characteristics, functional status and sensoriomotor function. Downs Syndr Res Pract. 2004;9(1):17â€“24. [PubMed]
Tomporowski PD, Jameson LD. Effects of a physical fitness training program on the exercise behavior of institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Adapt Phys Activ Q 1985;2:197-205.
Lavay B, McKenize TL. Development and evaluation of a systematic walk/run program for men with mental retardation. Educ Train Ment Retard 1991;September:333-341.
Pitetti KH, Tan DM. Effects of a minimally supervised exercise program for mentally retarded adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991;23:594-601.
Miller AL, Fernhall B, Burkett LN. Effects of aerobic training in adolescents with Down syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25:270â€“274.
Pitetti KH, Climstein M, Campbell KD, et al. The cardiovascular capacities of adults with Down syndrome. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 1992; 24:13â€“19.
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSMâ€™s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 6th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams &Wilkins; 2000.
Kubukeli ZN, Noakes TD, Dennis SC. Training techniques to improve endurance exercise performances. Sports Medicine, 2000; 32: 489-509
Jones AM, Carter H. The effects of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness. Sports Medicine. 2000;29: 373-386
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.