Atmospheric Air Pollution and Roughness of Bark as Possible Factor in Increasing Density of Epiphytic Terrestrial Algae
Keywords:algae, air pollution, density, dominant species, bark
AbstractAir pollution released to the atmosphere due to anthropogenic source particularly of motor vehicles creates emissions that significantly affect not living organisms. Epiphytic terrestrial algae were known to have a tendency towards atmospheric gases due to its high sorption capability. Besides the pollutant, the different texture of the bark of the trees also plays an important role for the colonization of the algae. This present work studies on two parameters that canaffect the number of algal cells per unit area (density); the increased pollutants and tree bark texture. Sampling stations which represent the polluted and relatively unpolluted environment hasbeen chosen. Quadrat sampling method was used to estimate the density of algae on 30 random trees inhabiting 15 x 15 cm quadrat. Results showed that both polluted and unpolluted sites were dominated by the same algal species, the Coccomyxa confluens (KÃ¼tzing) Fott. The polluted environment significantly support higher number ofepiphyticalgaeat 202 Â± 37 x 104 cells/cm2compared to the unpolluted area at 63 Â± 12 x 104cells/m2. Similarly, trees with rough textures was found to sustain higher number of algal cell at 228 Â± 52 x 104 cells/cm2compared to trees with smooth textures (187 Â± 41 x 104cells/cm2). Higher concentration of carbon dioxide and/or carbon monoxide and nitrogenous gases in polluted area possibly enhanced the growth of epiphytic terrestrial algae.In conclusion, polluted environment and rough bark textures was found to positively support higher algal density.
â€¢ Afroz, R., M. N. and Ibrahim, N. A. (2003). Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia. Environmental Research, 92 (2), 71-77.
â€¢ Briggs, D. J. (2007). The Use of GIS to Evaluate Trafic-Related Pollution. Occupational and Enironmental Medicine, 64 (1), 1-2.
â€¢ Edward. J & Lewis. J. 2012. Dissertation on Biomonitoring For Atmopsheric Nitrogen Pollution Using Epiphytic Lichens and Bryophytes. University of Nottingham.
â€¢ Ettl, H. and Gartner, G. (1995). Syllabus der Boden-, Luft- und Flechtenalgen. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, Jena and New York.
â€¢ Frank, T. (2000). Effects of nitrogen containing air pollutants: Critical levels. Air Quality Guidelines, World Health Organization, Europe. 1 pp.
â€¢ Galloway, J. N., Dentener, F. J., Capone, D. G., Boyer, E. W., Howarth, R. W., Seitzinger, S. P., Asner, G. P., Cleveland, C., Green, P. A., Holland, E., Karl, D. M., Michaels, A., Porter, J. H., Townsend, A. and Vorosmarty, C. (2004). Nitrogen cycles: past, present and future. Biogeochemistry, 70, 153-226.
â€¢ Graham, L. E. and Wilcox, L. W. (2000). The origin of alternation of generations in land plants: a focus on matrotrophy and hexose transport. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 355: 757-766.
â€¢ Honour, S. L., Bell, J. N. B., Ashenden, T. W., Cape, J. N. and Power, S. A. (2009). Responses of herbaceous plants to urban air pollution: Effects on growth, phrenology and leaf surface characteristics. Environmental Pollutions, 157 (4), 1279-1286.
â€¢ Howarth, R. W. and Rielinger, D. M., 2003. Nitrogen from the atmosphere: Understanding and reducing a major cause of degradation of our coastal waters. Science and policy bulletin #8, Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, NOAA, Waquoit, MA.
â€¢ Ihsan A., Siti KM, Faeiza B., Norashirene MJ., Norrizah JS., Noor AW., Ahmad I., Asmida I. Bark Roughness as a Factor Affecting Cell Density of Epiphytic Microalgae (Apatococcus Sp). Int'l Conference on Waste Management, Ecology and Biological Sciences (WMEBS'15)May 13-14, 2015 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
â€¢ Kauppi, P. E., MielikÃ¤inen, K. and Kuusela, K. (1992). Biomass and carbon budget of European forests, 1971 to 1990. Science (Washington), 256 (5053), 70-74.
â€¢ Kobendza, R. and Motyka, J. (1929). La vegetation des eboulis des Monts de Sainte Croix. Bull. Int. Acad. Pol. (Review by W. Watson, 1932). Jour. Ecol. 20: 216-220).
â€¢ Kraemer, H. (1901). The position of Pleurococcus and mosses on trees. Bot. Gaz. 32:422-423.
â€¢ Kuhler, M., Kraft, J., Hess, H., Heeren, U. and Schurmann, D. (1994). Comparison between measured and calculated concentrations of nitrogen oxides and ozone in the vicinity of a motorway. Science of the Total Environment, 146/147, 387-394.
â€¢ Lewin, R. A. and Robinson, P. T. (1979). The greening of polar bears in zoos. Nature, 278, 445-447.
â€¢ Lewis, L. A. (2007). Chlorophyta on land: independent lineages of green eukaryotes from arid lands. In J. Seckbach (Ed.), Algae and cyanobacteria in extreme environments (571-582). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
â€¢ Linda E.G., James M.G, Lee W.W. Algae, Second Edition, 2009. 978-0-321-55965-4.
â€¢ LÃ³pez-Bautista, J. M., Waters, D. A. and Chapman, R. L. (2002). The Trentepohliales revisited. Constancea, 83. Retrieved December 14, 2013 from http://ucjeps.berkely.edu/constancea/83/lopez_etal/trentepohlia.
â€¢ Malinska, K., & Zabochnica-Swiatek, M. (2010). Biosystems for Air Protection. 184-185.
â€¢ Neustupa, J. and Skaloud, P. (2010). Diversity of subaerial algae and cyanobacteria growing on bark and wood in the lowland tropical forests of Singapore. Plant Ecology and Evolution, 143 (10), 51-62.
â€¢ Packer, M. (2009). Algal capture of carbon dioxide: biomass generation as a tool for greenhouse gas mitigation with reference to NewZealand energy strategy and policy. Energy Policy, 37 (9), 3428-3437.
â€¢ PrÃ¶schold, T. and Leliaert, F. (2007). Systematic of the green algae: conflicts of classic and modern approaches. In J. Brodie and J. Lewis (Eds.), Unravelling the algae: the past, present and future of algal systematic, (The Systematics Association Special Volume Series 75, 133-53). Boca Raton, London and New York: CRC Press.
â€¢ Poikolainen, J. 2004. Mosses, Epiphytic Lichens and Tree Bark as Biomonitors for Air pollutants - Specifically for Heavy Metals in Regional Surveys. Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Oulu; The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos Research Station, ISBN 951-42-7479-2, Oulu, Finland.
â€¢ Rindi, F. and Guiry, M. D. (2004). Composition and spatial variability of terrestrial algal assemblages occurring at the bases of urban walls in Europe. Phycologia, 43 (3), 225-235.
â€¢ Schoo, K. L., Malzahn, A. M., Krause, E., and Boersma, M. (2013). Increased carbon dioxide availability alters phytoplankton stoichiometry and affects carbon cycling and growth of a marine planktonic herbivore. Marine biology, 160(8), 2145-2155.
â€¢ Steffii. F., Brendan, M. and Erin, N. (2003). Nitrate and phosphate levels positively affect the growth of algae species found in Perry Pond. Tillers, 4, 21-24.
â€¢ Waleed, F., Ihsan, S. I. and Ahmad, S. A. F. (2013). Air pollution Study of Vehicles Emission in High Volume Traffic: Selangor, Malaysia as a Case Study. WSEAS Transaction of Systems, 12 (2), 67-68.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.