Evaluation of Copper, Iron and Lead level in Some Selected Vegetables in Three Abuja main Market


  • N. A. Jibrin Baze university
  • A. J. Joshua


Estimation, Copper, Iron, Lead, Vegetables, Abuja


The level of Copper, Iron and Lead contents in six selected Vegetables in Abuja Markets were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The vegetables include; Ductus carrotus, Citrullus lanatus, Ipomea batatas, Alium sepa, Gingiber officinalis. and Detariium microcapum. The results revealed that average concentrations of  Cu, Fe, Pb detected were ranged from 24- 28µg/g, 320 - 2140µg/g, 20 - 100µg/g  for Utako market, 18 - 34µg/g, 260- 720µg/g, 20µg/g  for Wuse Market, 26 - 34µg/g, 260 - 1940µg/g, 20 - 100µg/g  for Garki market respectively. The concentrations levels of the metals were compared with those reported for similar vegetables from some other parts of the world.  The intakes of Cu, Fe and Pb through vegetables was also estimated and were found to be below the recommended tolerance levels proposed by Joint FAO/WHO Expert committee on Food Additives, 1999. The Cu, Fe and Pb contents obtained showed that vegetables from these markets could serve as good dietry supplement since the levels are within safety baseline contents for human consumption.

Author Biography

N. A. Jibrin, Baze university

Department of chemistry, lecturer II


IARC, (2003). Fruit and vegetables. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon.pp. 22-23

Mosha, T.C. and Gaga, H.E. (1999). Nutritive value and effect of blanching on trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities of selected leafy vegetables. Plant Foods Human Nutrition, 54: 271-283.

Delibacak, S., Elmaci, O.L, Secer, M. and Bodur, A. (2002). Trace element and heavy metal concentrations in fruits and vegetables of the Gediz River region. International Journal of Water. Vol. 2, No. 2/3.

Robertson, A., Tirado, C., Lobstein, T., Jermini, M., Knai, C. and Jensen, J. (2004). Food and health in Europe: a new basis for action. European Series, No. 96. WHO Regional Publications, Copenhagen. 12: 32-34

Fasuyi, O.A. (2006). Nutritional potentials of some tropical vegetable leaf meals: Chemical characterization and functional properties. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5: 49- 53.

Adeleke R. O. and Abiodun O. A. (2010). Chemical Composition of Three Traditional Vegetables in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (9): 858-860

Orech, F.O., Akenga, T., Ochora, J., Friis, H. and Aagaard, H. (2005). Potential toxicity of some traditional leafy vegetables consumed in Nyang’oma Division, Western Kenya. African Journal for Food Agriculture and Nutritional Development. Online, 5(1).

Okeno, J.A., Chebet, D.K. and Mathenge, P.W. ( 2003). Status of indigenous vegetables in Kenya. Acta Hort., 621: 9.

Smith, F.I. and Eyzaguirre, P. (2007). African leafy vegetables: Their role in the world health organization’s global fruit and vegetables initiatives. African Journal for Food Agriculture Nutritional Development. Online, 7: 1-9.

Zoro, B. I., Koffi, K.K. and Dje, Y. (2006). Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbits consommées en sauce en Afrique de l’Ouest: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis manii, Lagenaria siceraria. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ., 7(3-4): 187-199.

Onianwa, P.C., Adeyemo, A.O., Idowu, O.E. and Ogabiela, E.E. (2007). Copper and zinc contents of Nigerian foods and estimates of the adult dietary intakes. Food Chemistry. 72, 89–95.

Konofal, E., Lecendreux, M., Arnulf, I. and Mouren, M.C. (2004). Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 158:1113-1115.

[ 13] Kocak, S., Tokusoglu, O. and Aycan, S. (2005). Some heavy metal and trace essential element detection in canned vegetable foodstuffs by differential pulse polarography (DPP), Electronic Journal Environ. Agric. Food Chemistry.volume 4: pp.871-878.

Audu, A.A. and A.O. Lawal, 2005. Variation in metal contents of plants in vegetable garden sites in kano metropolis. Journal of Applied Science Environment, 10:105-109.

D’Mello, J.P.F, (2003). Food safety: Contaminants and toxins. Cambridge: CABI Publishing,

Sridhar, M.K., Olawuyi, J.F., Adogame L.A., Okekearu, O. C.O. and Linda, A. (2000). Lead in the Nigerian environment: problems and prospects, in 11th Annual International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment. University of Michigan, School of Public Health.19: 12-13

Radwan, M.A. and Salama, A.K. (2006). Market based survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44: 1273- 1278.

Devkota, B. and Schmidt, G.H. (2000). Accumulation of heavy metals in food plants and grasshoppers from the Taigetos Mountains, Greece. Agric. Ecosystem. Environment. Volume 78, pp.85-91.

Frost, H.L. and Ketchum, L.H. (2000). Trace metal concentration in durum wheat from application of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer. Advance Environmental Research. 4, 347-355.

Parveen, Z., Khuhro, M.I. and Rafiq, N. (2003). Market basket survey for lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc in fruits and vegetables. Bull. Environ. Contamination Toxicology. 71: 1260–1264

Abou -Arab A. A and Abou Donia M.A.(2000) Heavy metals in Egyptian spices and medicinal plants and the effect of processing on their levels. J.Agric. Food Chem. 48, 2300

Murphy, E.W., Marsh, A.C and Willis B.W.(1978). Nutrient content of spices and herbs. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 72, 174.

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (1999). Summary and conclusions. I: 53rd Meeting, Rome, June 1–10




How to Cite

Jibrin, N. A., & Joshua, A. J. (2015). Evaluation of Copper, Iron and Lead level in Some Selected Vegetables in Three Abuja main Market. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 3(3). Retrieved from https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAS/article/view/2707