Yearning for Justice: A Testimony from Rohingyas Misery in Bangladesh


  • Nasir M. Ali Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies University of Hargeisa, Somaliland
  • Ayan Rashid Ibrahim Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies University of Hargeisa, Somaliland



Rohingya, minority, genocide, ethnic-cleaning, Myanmar, Bangladesh


The Rohingya crisis has been a global news item both in newspapers and television in most recent times. The central objective of this study is to investigate the causes and drivers for uprooting the Rohingyas and forcing them to leave their ancestral land and to unveil the distressing and destitute situation of the Rohingyas from the refugee camps. The evidence that emerges from this study is that the Government of Myanmar is deliberately involving in the extermination and forceful displacement of the Rohingyas for political, ethnic, religious, and economic ends. Reacting to what is happening in the Rakhine State of Myanmar, a top United Nations human rights official considered a “textbook example of ethnic cleansing”. The study calls for the international community to hold Myanmar state accountable to its acts of mass execution and annihilation of its citizens, and permit the Rohingyas to return to their ancestral lands in Myanmar.


• Ahluwalia, Pal & Toby, Miller (2018). The Rohingya Crisis: Another Failure of the International System, Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture, Vol. 24, No. 3. Pp. 291–292.

• Ahmed, Abdelghaffar M. (2008). “Multiple Complexity and Prospects for Reconciliation and Unity: The Sudan Conundrum”. In: The Roots of African Conflicts: The Causes and Costs (eds). Addis Ababa: OSSREA.

• Ahsan, Syed B. (2018). The Rohingya Crisis: Why the World Must Act Decisively, Asian Affairs, pp. 1–11.

• Akokpari, John (2008). “You Don’t Belong Here’, Citizenship, the State and Africa’s Conflicts: Reflections of Ivory Coast”. In: The Roots of African Conflicts: The Causes and Costs (eds). Addis Ababa: OSSREA.

• Amin, Robed Md., Islam, Mohammad R. & Islam, QT (2018). Rohingya Crisis in Bangladesh: The Effect of Ethnic Cleansing in Myanmar, Bangladesh Journal Medicine, (29). Pp. 1–2.

• Attané, Isabelle & Guo, Wei (2019). Social Mobility of Uighur Population in Mainland China: A Comparative Perspective, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 39, No. 4. Pp. 522–533.

• Azad, Emraan. Dasgupta, Shaoli. Hoque, Mofidul & Rahim, Naureen (2018). The Rohingya Genocide: Compilation and Analysis of Survivors’ Testimonies. Dhaka: Center for the Study of Genocide and Justice.

• Bereket Habte Selassie (1980). Conflict and Intervention in the Horn of Africa. United States of America: Monthly Review Press.

• Brendan, Bromwich (2009). “Analysing Resource Constraints as One Dimension of the Conflict in Darfur”. In: Environment and Conflict in Africa: Reflections on Darfur (ed). Addis Ababa: View Graphics.

• Brinham, Natalie (2019). “The Conveniently Forgotten Human Rights of the Rohingya”. In: Essays on Myanmar’s Genocide of Rohingyas (2012–2018). Dhaka: CR Abrar.

• Brush, Stephen G. (1996). Dynamics of Theory of Change in the Social Sciences: Relative Deprivation and Collective Violence, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec. 1996), pp. 523–545.

• Bulhan, Hussein A. (1985). Frantz Fanon and the Psychology of Oppression. New York: Plenum Press.

• ________________ (2008). Politics of Cain: One Hundred Years of Crises in Somali Politics and Society, 1st edition. Bethesda, MD, USA: Tayosan International Publishing.

• Collier, Paul (2008). The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Falling and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Oxford University Press.

• Cowley, Alice & Zarni, Maung (2019). “The Slow-Burning Genocide of Myanmar’s Rohingya”. In: Essays on Myanmar’s Genocide of Rohingyas (2012–2018). Dhaka: CR Abrar.

• Dussich, John P. J. (2018). The Ongoing Genocidal Crisis of the Rohingya Minority in Myanmar, Journal of Victimology and Victim Justice, 1 (1). Pp. 1–21.

• Franceschet, Antonio (2006). “Global Legalism and Human Security”. In: A Decade of Human Security: Global Governance and New Multilateralisms (eds). England: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

• Ghazali, Amer S., Othman, Mohammad R. & Parnini, Syeda N. (2013). The Rohingya Refugee Crisis and Bangladesh–Myanmar Relations, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1. Pp. 133–146.

• Human Rights Watch (2018). “Eradicating Ideological Viruses”: China’s Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang’s Muslims. New York: Human Rights Watch.

• ______________________(2020). “Shoot the Traitors”: Discrimination Against Muslims under India’s New Citizenship Policy. New York: Human Rights Watch.

• Kipgen, Nehginpao (2019). The Rohingya Crisis: The Centrality of Identity and Citizenship, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. Pp. 1–14.

• Lefebvre, Jeffrey A. (1998). The United States, Ethiopia, and the 1963 Somali-Soviet Arms Deal: Containment and the Balance of Power Dilemma in the Horn of Africa, The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Dec. 1998), pp. 611–643.

• Li, Yuhui & Niemann, Christopher (2016). Social Construction of Ethnic Identity and Conflict: The Cases of the Chechen and the Uighur, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, pp. 1–14.

• Lund, Brian (2002). Understanding State Welfare: Social Justice or Social Exclusion. London: Sage Publications.

• Mazrui, Ali A. (2008). “Conflict in Africa: An Overview”. In: The Roots of African Conflicts: The Causes and Costs (eds). Addis Ababa: OSSREA.

• Mutaqin, Zezen Z. (2018). The Rohingya Refugee Crisis and Human Rights: What Should ASEAN Do? Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law 19 (2018). Pp. 1–26.

• OECD (2010). The State’s Legitimacy in Fragile Situations: Unpacking Complexity. Paris: OECD Publishing.

• Omani, Paul (2012). “Investigating the Link between Environmental Scarcity and Conflict in Darfur”. In: Climate Change and Pastoralism: Traditional Coping Mechanisms and Conflict in the Horn of Africa. Addis Ababa: Eclipse Printing Agency.

• Parnini, Syeda N. (2013). The Crisis of the Rohingya as a Muslim Minority in Myanmar and Bilateral Relations with Bangladesh, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 33, No. 2. Pp. 281–297.

• Quigley, John (2006). The Genocide Convention: An International Law Analysis. England: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

• Rajput, Aniruddha (2018). Bay of Bengal maritime delimitation cases: Upholding the Rule of law in international relations, Maritime Affairs: Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India, Volume 14, Issue 1. Pp. 24–35.

• Rotberg, Robert I. (2003). “Failed States, Collapsed States, Weak States: Causes and Indicators”. In: State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror. Harrisonburg, VA: R.R. Donnelley.

• Salim El Hassan, Idris (2008). “Managing the Process of Conflict Resolution in the Sudan”. In: The Resolution of African Conflicts: The Management of Conflict Resolution and Post-Conflict Reconstruction (eds). Addis Ababa: OSSREA.

• Schabas, William A. (2009). Genocide in International Law: The Crime of Crimes, 2nd edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

• Selth, Andrew (2018). Myanmar’s Armed Forces and the Rohingya Crisis. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.

• Shahabuddin, Mohammad (2019). Post-colonial Boundaries, International Law, and the Making of the Rohingya Crisis in Myanmar, Asian Journal of International Law, Volume 9, Issue 2. Pp. 334–358.

• Sheppard, Michael (2006). Social Work and Social Exclusion: The Idea of Practice. England: Ashgate Publishing.

• Siddiqi, Farhan H. (2012). Security Dynamics in Pakistani Balochistan: Religious Activism and Ethnic Conflict in the War on Terror, Asian Affairs: An American Review, 39 (3). Pp. 157–175.

• Ted, Gurr (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

• UNECA (2015). Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Causes, impact, and implications for the Great Lakes region. Addis Ababa: UN Economic Commission for Africa.

• UNHCHR (2017). Darker and more dangerous: High Commissioner updates the Human Rights Council on human rights issues in 40 countries. Available at Accessed on July 25, 2020, at 10:00 am.

• _________(2019). UN Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar Hands Over to Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar. Available at Accessed on July 30, 2020.

• Zelela, Paul T. (2008). “Introduction: The Causes and Costs of War in Africa – from Liberation Struggles to the ‘War on Terror’”. In: The Roots of African Conflicts: The Causes and Costs (eds). Addis Ababa: OSSREA.

• Zöllner, Hans-Bernd (2017). Caught between the Crocodile and the Snake: Contexts of the ‘Rohingya issue’. University of Windsor, Universiti Sains Malaysia a




How to Cite

Ali, N. M., & Rashid Ibrahim, A. . (2020). Yearning for Justice: A Testimony from Rohingyas Misery in Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 8(6).