Historical-Sociological Background of the Relationship between China and Xinjiang Region
Keywords:Uyghur, Xinjiang, Minority Policy and Nationalism
AbstractChinaâ€™s minority issue always is a hot topic among scholars from west and east, and Chinese rule in Xinjiang Region is one of the hottest. As Uyghur secessionistâ€™s numerous violent clashes are defined as desperate resistance in the west and terrorist attack in China, the discrepancy is too obvious to ignore. This discrepancy not just influences the public opinion but also the international diplomatic policy and academic investigation. This paper, as a preparation for the further investigation on the Chinaâ€™s Xinjiang policy, examined the background of the China-Xinjiang relationship from multidimensional perspective. By reviewing historical records and comparing them with Chinese official claims and Uyghur secessionistâ€™s claim, this article located Xinjiang region's position inside both Chinese nationalism and Uyghur independence movement. Also Chinese official minority policies are examined as they are considered as key factor for Uyghur independence movement.
â€¢ Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. Verso Books.
â€¢ Barth, F. (1998). Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. Waveland Press.
â€¢ Beckwith, C. I. (1993). The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages. Princeton University Press.
â€¢ Byman, D. (2002). Keeping the peace: lasting solutions to ethnic conflicts. JHU Press.
â€¢ Brophy, D. (2016). Uyghur Nation. Harvard University Press.
â€¢ Central Asian Research Centre (London, England) & St. Antony's College (University of Oxford). Soviet Affairs Study Group (1965). Central Asian review. (Vol. 13). Published by the Central Asian Research Centre in association with the Soviet Affairs Study Group, St. Antony's College, [London]
â€¢ Central Asian Research Centre (London, England) & St. Antony's College (University of Oxford). Soviet Affairs Study Group (1968). Central Asian review. (Vol. 16). Published by the Central Asian Research Centre in association with the Soviet Affairs Study Group, St. Antony's College, [London]
â€¢ Cheng, Y. (2009). An Important Achievement in the Ethnic Theory of Marxism-Leninism in Chinaï¼šFrom National Self-Determination to Regional Autonomy of Minority Nationalities. JOURNAL OF DALI UNIVERSITY, 8(1), 53-57.
ç¨‹é¥. (2009). é©¬å…‹æ€åˆ—å®ä¸»ä¹‰æ°‘æ—ç†è®ºä¸å›½åŒ–çš„é‡è¦æˆæžœ:ä»Žæ°‘æ—è‡ªå†³åˆ°æ°‘æ—åŒºåŸŸè‡ªæ²». å¤§ç†å¤§å¦å¦æŠ¥, 8(1), 53-57.
â€¢ Clarke, M. (2010). Widening the net: China's anti-terror laws and human rights in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The International Journal of Human Rights, 14(4), 542-558.
â€¢ Clauson, G. (1965). An Eastern Turki-English Dictionary. By Gunnar Jarring. Lunds Universitets Ã…rsskrift, N. F. Avd. 1, Bd. 56, Nr. 4. pp. 338. C. W. K. Gleerup, Lund. 1964. kr. 50. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 97(1), 57-57. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00123640
â€¢ De Fraja, G. (2005). Reverse Discrimination and Efficiency in Education. International Economic Review, 46(3), 1009-1031. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3663502
â€¢ Ding, L. (2009). The Abolition of the Beg System in the Qing Dynasty and the Transfer of the Political Center of Xinjiang. Heilongjiang Journal of Nations, 109, 120-123.
ä¸ç«‹å†›. (2009). æ¸…ä»£ä¼¯å…‹åˆ¶çš„åºŸé™¤ä¸Žæ–°ç–†æ”¿æ²»ä¸å¿ƒçš„è½¬ç§». é»‘é¾™æ±Ÿæ°‘æ—ä¸›åˆŠ,109, 120-123.
â€¢ Elverskog, J. (2011). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. University of Pennsylvania Press.
â€¢ Fairbank, J. K., & Twitchett, D. (Eds.). (1978). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 11, Late Ch'ing 1800-1911. Cambridge University Press.
â€¢ Forbes, A. D. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. CUP Archive.
â€¢ Gladney, D. C. (1998). Ethnic identity in China: the making of a Muslim minority nationality (pp. 159-176). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
â€¢ Hade, A. (2018, June 26). Ethnic Boundaries, Mixed States and Inter-Ethnic Relations [PDF]. Peikin: PKU Sociology. http://www.shehui.pku.edu.cn/upload/editor/file/20180626/20180626194413_9867.pdf.
â€¢ Han, G. (2012). Research on the Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China. Nankai University.
éŸ©åˆš. (2012). ä¸å›½æ°‘æ—ä¼˜æƒ æ”¿ç–ç ”ç©¶. å—å¼€å¤§å¦ã€‚(Doctoral dissertation).
â€¢ Hobsbawm, E. J. (2012). Nations and nationalism since 1780: Programme, myth, reality. Cambridge university press.
â€¢ Horowitz, D. L. (2001). Ethnic groups in conflict, updated edition with a new preface. University of California Press.
â€¢ Hyer, E. (2006). China's policy towards Uighur nationalism. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 26(1), 75-86.
â€¢ Ji, Y. (2003). General Zuo Zongtang and the Foundation of Xinjiang Province. Social Sciences in Nanjing (6), 44-49.
å£äº‘é£ž. (2003). å·¦å®—æ£ å’Œæ–°ç–†å»ºçœ. å—äº¬ç¤¾ä¼šç§‘å¦(6), 44-49.
â€¢ Kamen, H. (2014). The Spanish Inquisition: a historical revision. Yale University Press.
â€¢ Kaup, K. P. (2000). Creating the Zhuang: Ethnic Politics in China. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
â€¢ Lake, D. A., & Rothchild, D. (1996). Containing fear: The origins and management of ethnic conflict. International security, 21(2), 41-75.
â€¢ Liu, A., & Chen, G. (2006). The Anxi Protectorate in the Tang Dynasty: The Governance in Kucha. History Research(1), 34-48.
åˆ˜å®‰å¿—, & é™ˆå›½ç¿. (2006). å”ä»£å®‰è¥¿éƒ½æŠ¤åºœå¯¹é¾Ÿå…¹çš„æ²»ç†. åŽ†å²ç ”ç©¶(1), 34-48.
â€¢ Liu, T. T., & Faure, D. (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China (Vol. 1). Hong Kong University Press.
â€¢ Liu, Xiaoming. (2018, August 21). Harmony in Xinjiang is based on three principles. Financial Times. www.ft.com/content/05a81682-a219-11e8-85da-eeb7a9ce36e4.
â€¢ Lu, W. (2014). Analysis of Population Changes in Shaanxi-Gansu Region from 1776 to 1953. Inheritance and Innovation of Historical Geography and Research on Border Security and Historical Governance in Western China. 2014 Chinese Geographical Society Historical Geography Committee (pp. 354-365).
è·¯ä¼Ÿä¸œ. (2014). 1776è‡³1953å¹´é™•ç”˜åŒºåŸŸäººå£å˜åŠ¨åˆ†æž. åŽ†å²åœ°ç†å¦çš„ç»§æ‰¿ä¸Žåˆ›æ–°æš¨ä¸å›½è¥¿éƒ¨è¾¹ç–†å®‰å…¨ä¸ŽåŽ†ä»£æ²»ç†ç ”ç©¶â€”â€”2014å¹´ä¸å›½åœ°ç†å¦ä¼šåŽ†å²åœ°ç†ä¸“ä¸šå§”å‘˜ä¼šå¦æœ¯ç ”è®¨ä¼šè®ºæ–‡é›†.
â€¢ Ma, Rong. (2012. August). Ethnic Issues and the "Nationality Recognition" Campaign in China in the 1950s. N.W. Journal of Ethnology (3), 13-28.
é©¬æˆŽ. (2012.08). ä¸å›½çš„æ°‘æ—é—®é¢˜ä¸Ž20ä¸–çºª50å¹´ä»£çš„â€œæ°‘æ—è¯†åˆ«â€. è¥¿åŒ—æ°‘æ—ç ”ç©¶(3), 13-28.
â€¢ Ma, Rong. (2012. September). How to Define "Nation" and "Chinese Nation." Journal of South-Central University for Nationalities (Humanities and Social Sciences), 32(5), 1-12.
é©¬æˆŽ. (2012.09). å¦‚ä½•è®¤è¯†â€œæ°‘æ—â€å’Œâ€œä¸åŽæ°‘æ—â€â€”â€”å›žé¡¾1939å¹´å…³äºŽâ€œä¸åŽæ°‘æ—æ˜¯ä¸€ä¸ªâ€çš„è®¨è®º. ä¸å—æ°‘æ—å¤§å¦å¦æŠ¥(äººæ–‡ç¤¾ä¼šç§‘å¦ç‰ˆ), 32(5), 1-12.
â€¢ Meakin, A. M. (1915). In Russian Turkestan: A garden of Asia and its people. G. Allen.
â€¢ Meng, Liaokuo. (2015). The Establishment of the Protectorate of the Western Regions in the Western Han Dynasty and Its Significance. Journal of Ningxia University (Humanities & Social Sciences Edition) (6), 37, 71-77.
åŸè¾½é˜”. (2015). è¥¿æ±‰ä¸æœŸè¥¿åŸŸéƒ½æŠ¤åºœçš„è®¾ç«‹åŠå…¶é‡è¦æ„ä¹‰. å®å¤å¤§å¦å¦æŠ¥(äººæ–‡ç¤¾ä¼šç§‘å¦ç‰ˆ)(6), 37,71-77.
â€¢ Meng, Xianshi. (2012). Khotan: A Shift from Garrison Station to Garrison Town. Journal of Peking University (Philosophy and Social Sciences), 49(4), 120-128.
åŸå®ªå®ž. (2012). äºŽé˜—ï¼šä»Žé•‡æˆåˆ°å†›é•‡çš„æ¼”å˜. åŒ—äº¬å¤§å¦å¦æŠ¥ï¼šå“²å¦ç¤¾ä¼šç§‘å¦ç‰ˆ, Vol.49(4), 120-128.
â€¢ Millward, J. A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: a History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press.
â€¢ Mullaney, T. (2011). Coming to terms with the nation: Ethnic classification in modern China (Vol. 18). University of California Press.
â€¢ Pence, M. (2018, October 4). Vice President of US. Speech presented at Administrationâ€™s Policy toward China in The Hudson Institute, Washington, D.C. Retrieved March 29, 2019, from https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-vice-president-pence-administrations-policy-toward-china/?utm_source=link.
â€¢ Qi, Ruoxiong. (2001). On the Establishment and Significance of Union in Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang. Western Region Study(1), 43-50.
ç¥è‹¥é›„. (2001). è¯•è®ºæ–°ç–†ä¿å«å’Œå¹³æ°‘ä¸»åŒç›Ÿçš„æˆç«‹åŠå…¶æ„ä¹‰. è¥¿åŸŸç ”ç©¶(1), 43-50.
â€¢ Qi, Jinyu. (2016). A Preliminary Study of the Chinese Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Taxonomy System. Journal of Minzu University of China Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition)(4), 43, 18-28.
ç¥è¿›çŽ‰. (2016). ä¸å›½çš„æ°‘æ—è¯†åˆ«ä¸Žæ°‘æ—åˆ†ç±»å¦ä½“ç³»åŒ–åˆæŽ¢. ä¸å¤®æ°‘æ—å¤§å¦å¦æŠ¥(å“²å¦ç¤¾ä¼šç§‘å¦ç‰ˆ)(4), 43, 18-28.
â€¢ Qing, J., Jin, B., & Zhu, Z. (2002). The Formation and Development of the CCP Minority Economic Policy. Heilongjiang Journal of Nations, 69, 52-61.
é’è§‰, é‡‘ç‚³é•, &æœ±æŒ¯å†›. (2002). ä¸å›½å…±äº§å…šå°‘æ•°æ°‘æ—ç»æµŽæ”¿ç–çš„å½¢æˆå’Œå‘å±•--ä¸å›½å…±äº§å…šæ°‘æ—çº²é¢†æ”¿ç–å½¢æˆå’Œå‘å±•ç ”ç©¶ä¹‹åäºŒ. é»‘é¾™æ±Ÿæ°‘æ—ä¸›åˆŠ. 69, 52-61.
â€¢ SanjuÃ¡n, A. G. (2012). Al-Andalus en la historiografÃa del nacionalismo espaÃ±olista (siglos XIXXXI): entre la Reconquista y la EspaÃ±a musulmana. A, 1300, 65-104.
â€¢ Shichor, Y. (2003). Virtual transnationalism: Uygur communities in Europe and the quest for Eastern Turkestan independence. Muslim Networks and Transnational Communities in and across Europe, 281-311.
â€¢ Smith, Anthony. D. (2013). Nationalism: Theory, ideology, history. John Wiley & Sons.
â€¢ Smith Finley, J. (2007). Chinese oppression in Xinjiang, Middle Eastern conflicts and global Islamic solidarities among the Uyghurs. Journal of Contemporary China, 16(53), 627-654.
â€¢ Stalin, J. (1954). Marxism and the national question.
â€¢ Stein, M. A., & Stein, A. (1907). Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan (Vol. 1). Clarendon Press.
â€¢ Stephens, B. (2018, October 19). The Curse of Affirmative Action. New York Times. Retrieved November 22, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/19/opinion/harvard-case-affirmative-action.html
â€¢ Stewart, A. B., & Sheng, Q. (2017). Chinese Muslims and the Global Ummah. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group,.
â€¢ Tang, J. (2012). A Study on Chinized Marxist Outlooks on Ethno-Nation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Anhui.
å”å»ºå…µ. (2012). ä¸å›½åŒ–é©¬å…‹æ€ä¸»ä¹‰æ°‘æ—è§‚ç ”ç©¶. (Doctoral dissertation).å®‰å¾½å¤§å¦.
â€¢ Thum, R. (2018, May 15). What Really Happens in Chinaâ€™s â€˜Re-educationâ€™ Camps. New York Times. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/opinion/china-re-education-camps.html?_ga=2.207381463.590327983.1540397926-1138100108.1482019188.
â€¢ Tilbury, N., & Todd, M. (2008). One thousand languages: Living, endangered, and lost. Univ of California Press.
â€¢ Trombert, Ã‰. (2000). Les Manuscrits Chinois de Koutcha: Fonds Pelliot de la BibliothÃ¨que Nationale de France. Institut des hautes Ã©tudes chinoises du CollÃ¨ge de France.
â€¢ Toops, S. (2004). Demographics and Development in Xinjiang after 1949. East-West Center Washington.
â€¢ Tursun, N. (2008, August). The Formation of Modern Uyghur Historiography and Competing Perspectives toward Uyghur History. In China & Eurasia Forum Quarterly (Vol. 6, No. 3).
â€¢ Wang, Aiyun. (2013). The CPC and Minoritiesâ€™ Language Creation and Reform. Historical Investigation of CPC, 7, 71-81.
çŽ‹çˆ±äº‘. (2013). ä¸å…±ä¸Žå°‘æ•°æ°‘æ—æ–‡å—çš„åˆ›åˆ¶å’Œæ”¹é©. ä¸å…±å…šå²ç ”ç©¶(7), 71-81.
â€¢ Wang, D. D. (1998). East Turkestan Movement in Xinjiang. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 4(1), 1-18.
â€¢ Wang, Xilong. (1985). Muslim Farmer in Xinjiang of Qing Dynasty. Journal of Northwest Minzu University (Philosophy and Social Science), 1, 44-52.
çŽ‹å¸Œéš†. (1985). æ¸…ä»£æ–°ç–†çš„å›žå±¯. è¥¿åŒ—æ°‘æ—å¤§å¦å¦æŠ¥(å“²å¦ç¤¾ä¼šç§‘å¦ç‰ˆ)(1), 44-52.
â€¢ Wei, L. (1999). Rethink on the Origin, Formation and Development of the Uyghur. ETHO-NATIONAL STUDIES, 4, 83-88. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
éè‰¯. (1999). ç»´å¾å°”æ—èµ·æºã€å½¢æˆå’Œå‘å±•é—®é¢˜å†æ€è€ƒ. æ°‘æ—ç ”ç©¶(4), 88-88.
â€¢ Zenz, A. (2019). â€˜Thoroughly reforming them towards a healthy heart attitudeâ€™: Chinaâ€™s political re-education campaign in Xinjiang. Central Asian Survey, 38(1), 102-128.
â€¢ Zhang, A. (2013). Study on the Remains of Guard City in the Western Region - WuLei City of the Safe. QILU JOURNAL, 3, 51-56.
å¼ å®‰ç¦. (2013). è¥¿åŸŸéƒ½æŠ¤åºœä¹Œåž’åŸŽé—å€è€ƒ. é½é²å¦åˆŠ(3).51-56.
â€¢ Zhao, Y. (2011). The Duhufu System of the Tang Dynasty in the Western Region. Journal of Kaili University, 29, 2, 47-50.
èµµæ°¸ä¼¦. (2011). è®ºå”æœåœ¨è¥¿åŸŸçš„éƒ½æŠ¤åºœåˆ¶åº¦. å‡¯é‡Œå¦é™¢å¦æŠ¥, 29(2), 47-50.
â€¢ Zheng, Q. (2009). Investigation about the Chinese Ethnic Criminal Policy (Doctoral dissertation). Minzu University of China.
éƒ‘é½çŒ›. (2009). ä¸å›½æ°‘æ—åˆ‘äº‹æ”¿ç–ç ”ç©¶. (Doctoral dissertation). ä¸å¤®æ°‘æ—å¤§å¦.
â€¢ Yang, Qiong., & Yang, Zhongjian. (2015). An Analysis of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in Supporting the Development of Ningxia Halal Meat Manufacturing. Journal of Hui Muslim Minority Studies, 99, 112-118.
æ¨ç¼, & æ¨é’Ÿå¥. (2015). å®å¤æ¸…çœŸè‚‰åˆ¶å“äº§ä¸šå‘å±•ä¸çš„è´¢ç¨Žæ”¯æŒæ”¿ç–åˆ†æž. å›žæ—ç ”ç©¶(3), 112-118.
â€¢ Yang, Shengmin. (1988). Analysis of the Ethnic Characteristics of Ancient Uyghur People-- Comment on the Difference Between the modern Uyghurâ€™s and the ancient Uyghur. Ethnic Study of Gansu, 1. 78
æ¨åœ£æ•. (1988). å›žçº¥äººçš„ç§æ—ç‰¹å¾è¯•æž-å…¼è¯„ç»´å¾å°”æ—ä¸Žå…¶å…ˆæ°‘å›žçº¥ä¹‹åŒºåˆ«. ç”˜è‚ƒæ°‘æ—ç ”ç©¶, 1, 78.
â€¢ Ye, X. (2007). Seven Day's Talk On Religious Issues. Pekin: Central Party School Press.
å¶å°æ–‡. (2007). å®—æ•™ä¸ƒæ—¥è°ˆ. åŒ—äº¬:å®—æ•™æ–‡åŒ–å‡ºç‰ˆç¤¾ä¸å…±ä¸å¤®å…šæ ¡å‡ºç‰ˆç¤¾.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.