Pupils’ Awareness and Attitudes towards Wildlife Conservation in Two Districts in Tanzania


  • Sayuni B. Mariki Department of Wildlife Management, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, zion2000tz@yahoo.com


awareness, pupils, wildlife, conservation, protected areas


With increasing pressure on natural resources, biodiversity conservation will increasingly depend on public awareness and participation. Environmental education is an important tool for improving people’s understanding and motivation to cooperate and take initiatives for conservation and sustainable resource use. Although environmental education is included in the primary school curriculum in Tanzania, it places little emphasis on wildlife conservation, a situation that hinders orientation of future generation towards wildlife conservation. This study was conducted in Morogoro urban and Morogoro rural districts in Tanzania to explore pupils’ awareness and attitudes towards wildlife conservation. Combinations of questionnaires, formal and informal discussions were used to collect data. A total of 96 pupils participated in the study. The findings show that pupils from Morogoro Rural District (61%) had more knowledge of wildlife than Morogoro Urban District (39%). Many pupils (65 %) wanted wild animals to be conserved although some (28 %) did not consider conservation of the environment as essential, since animals were seen as threat to their lives and properties. Many pupils (82%) showed an increased interest in wildlife conservation and wanted to visit the protected areas but were restricted with resources like funds and transport. More boys were aware on wildlife conservation than girls, and older pupils were aware on wildlife conservation than younger ones. Some factors observed to affect pupils’ awareness on wildlife conservation were age and sex. The study concludes that for conservation to be successful raising and creating conservation awareness among pupils is highly needed, as they are future conservationists.




• Allen, I. (2000). Elimu ya Mazingira kwa Walimu. Environmental Education and Communication Project. GreenCOM. WWF, Tanzania.

• Athman, J., & Monroe, M. (2000). Elements of effective environmental education programs. Recreational Boating Fishing Foundation: http://www.rbff.org/educational/reports.cfm

• Bakobi, L.M. (1992). Environmental Education and Public Awareness in Tanzania. Country report. SIDA Regional Soil Conservation Unit.

• Bath, A.J., & Farmer, L. (2000). Europe’s carnivores: a survey of children’s attitudes towards wolves, bears and otters. Godalming, United Kingdom: World Wide Fund for Nature.

• Bitanyi, S., Nesje, M., Kusiluka, L.J.M., Chenyambuga, S.W., & Kaltenborn, B.P. (2012). Awareness and perceptions of local people about wildlife hunting in western Serengeti communities. Tropical Conservation Science, 5 (2), 208-224.

• Eagly, A.H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

• Gillingham, S., & Lee, P.C. (1999). The impact of wildlife-related benefits on the conservation attitudes of local people around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation, 26(3), 218–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0376892999000302

• Herzog, H.A. (2007). Gender differences in human–animal interactions: A review. Anthrozoös, 20(1), 7-21.

• Hines, J.M, Hungerford, H.R., & Tomera, A. N. (1986). Analysis of research on responsible environmental behaviour. A Meta analysis. Journal of Environmental Education, 18 (2), 1-8.

• Hulme, D., & Murphree, M. (Eds.). (2001). African wildlife and livelihoods: The promise and performance of community conservation. Oxford, UK: James Currey.

• Hungerford, H.R., & Volk, T. L. (1990). Changing learner behaviour through environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 21(3), 8-21.

• IUCN/UNEP/WWF (1980). World Conservation Strategy Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, United Nations Environment Programme and World Wildlife Fund.

• Jacobson, S.K. (1995). Conserving Wildlife: International Education and Communication Approaches. Columbia University Press, New York.

• Jacobson, S.K., & Padua, S.M. (1992). Parks and pupils. Environmental education using national parks in developing countries. Childhood Education, 68(5), 290-293.

• Kellert, S.R. (1996). The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society. Washington, DC: Island Press.

• Kideghesho, J., Rija, A., Mwamende, K., & Selemani, I. (2013). Emerging issues and challenges in conservation of biodiversity in the rangelands of Tanzania. Nature Conservation, 6, 1–29. doi: 0.3897/nature conservation.6.5407

• Kideghesho, J.R., Røskaft, E., & Kaltenborn, B.P. (2007). Factors influencing conservation attitudes of local people in Western Serengeti, Tanzania. Biodiversity Conservation, 16, 2213-2230. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10531-006-9132-8.

• Koran, J., & Longino, S. (1983). Curiosity in formal and informal settings. What research says? Research Bulletin. Gainesville Florida Educational Research and Development Council.

• Kushosha, E. (2001). Education and environmental future. Malihai Magazine, 5,9-10.

• Lindhe, V., Goldstick, M., Muturi S.N., & Rimmerfors, P. (1995). Report from a Regional Workshop on Environmental Education: Experiences and suggestions. Nairobi: Kenya Regional soil conservation Unit/SIDA

• Madsen, P. (1996). What can universities and professional schools do to save the environment? In J. B. Callicott and F. J. da Rocha (Eds.), Earth Summit Ethics: toward a reconstructive postmodern philosophy of environmental education (pp. 71-91). NY: Albany State University of New York Press.

• Maganga, S.L.S. (1999). Community-based wildlife management policy. Kakakuona, 16, 21-27.

• Majić, A. (2007). Human dimensions in wolf management in Croatia: Understanding public attitudes toward wolves over time and space. St. John’s, Newfoundland: Memorial University of Newfoundland.

• Mariki, S.B. (2013). Conservation with a human face? Comparing local participation and benefit sharing from a national park and a state forest plantation in Tanzania. Sage Open, 3 (4), 1–16.

• Mariki, S.B., Hassan, S. N., Maganga, S.L.S., Modest, R.B., & Salehe, F.S. (2011). Wildlife-based domestic tourism in Tanzania: experiences from northern tourist circuit. Ethiopian Environmental Studies and Management, 4(4).

• McNeely, J.A., & Miller, K.R. (Eds.) (1984). National parks, conservation and development. The role of protected areas in sustaining society. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. xiii+ 825 pp.

• MNRT (Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism) (1998). Wildlife Policy of Tanzania. Government Printers Dar es Salaam

• Mobley, C., Vagias, W. M., & DeWard, L. S. (2010). Exploring additional determinants of environmentally responsible behaviour: the influence of environmental literature and environmental attitudes. Environment and Behaviour, 42, 420–447.

• Msilanga, C. (2001). Malihai Club. Kakakuona, 3, 23-24.

• NBST (National Bureau of Statistics Tanzania) (2013). The 2012 Population and Housing Census, Population Distribution by Administrative Areas (Volume I), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

• Newmark, W., & Hough, J. (2000). Conserving wildlife in Africa: Integrated conservation and development projects and beyond. BioScience, 50, 585-592. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0585: CWIAIC] 2.0.CO; 2

• Petty, R. (1995). Attitude change. In: A Tesser (Eds.), Advanced Social Psychology (pp. 195-255). New York: McGraw-Hill.

• Prokop, P., Kubiatko, M., & FanÄoviÄová, J. (2008). Slovakian pupils’ knowledge of and attitudes toward birds. Anthrozoös, 21(3), 221-235.

• Prokop, P, FanÄoviÄová, J., &Kubiatko, M. (2009). Vampires are still alive: Slovakian students' attitudes toward bats. Anthrozoös, 22(1), 19-30.

• Rahim, M., & Hussein (2001). Let’s not harm our Environment. Miombo, 3,10-12.

• Rajabu, A.R. (1992). Consultancy report on incorporation of environmental education in school curricula. National Environmental Management Council, Dar Es Salaam.

• Rajabu, A.R., Muheto, R.N., & Bakobi, L.M. (1991). Workshop report on environmental education for desertification control. National Environmental Management Council, Dar es Salaam.

• Rovero, F., Mtui, A.S., Kitegile, A.S., & Nielsen, M.R. (2011). Hunting or habitat degradation? Decline of primate populations in Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania: An analysis of threats. Biological Conservation, 146, 89-96.

• Røskaft, E., Bjerke, T., Kaltenborn, B.P., Linnell, J.D., & Andersen, R. (2003). Patterns of self-reported fear towards large carnivores among the Norwegian public. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 24, 184-198.

• Scherl, L. M., Wilson, A., Wild, R., Blockhus, J., Franks, P., McNeely, J. A., & McShane, T. O. (2004). Can protected areas contribute to poverty reduction? Opportunities and limitations. Gland, Switzerland: World Conservation Union.

• Taylor, N. & Signal, T.D. (2005). Empathy and attitudes to animals. Anthrozoös, 18, 18-27.

• Tilbury, D. (1994). The critical learning years for environmental education. In R.A. Wilson (Ed.). Environmental Education at the Early Childhood Level. Washington, DC: North American Association for Environmental Education, pp. 11-13.

• Torkar, G., Mohar, P., Gregorc, T., Nekrep, I., & AdamiÄ, M.H. (2010). The conservation knowledge and attitudes of teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 5(3), 341-352

• Villacorta, M., Koestner, R., & Lekes, N. (2003). Further validation of the motivation toward the environment scale. Environment and Behavior, 35, 486-505.

• WCST (Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania) (2001). Factors which affect Wildlife Conservation Awareness. Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania. Unpublished Report. Morogoro.

• Wells, M., Michael, P., Brandon, K., & Hannah, L. (1992). People and Parks: An Analysis of Projects Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities. World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.

• White, R. (2004) Young Children's Relationship with Nature: Its importance to children's development and the earth's future. White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group, https://www.whitehutchinson.com/ children/articles/childrennature.shtml

• Wilson, R.A. (Ed.) (1994). Environmental education at the early childhood level. Washington, DC: North American Association for Environmental Education.

• Wilson, R. A. (1996). Starting Early: Environmental Education during the Early Childhood Years. ERIC Digest. www.eric.ed.gov

• WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) (1997). Kujanisha Shule na Jumuiya. Mwongozo kwa Viongozi wa Shule na Jumuiya. WWF, Tanzania Programme Office, Environmental Education Programme, Dar es salaam.

• Zimmerman, L.K. (1996). The development of an environmental values short form. Journal of Environmental Education, 28, 32-37.




How to Cite

Mariki, S. B. (2016). Pupils’ Awareness and Attitudes towards Wildlife Conservation in Two Districts in Tanzania. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 4(2). Retrieved from https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJHSS/article/view/3752