Perceived Parental Bonding, Emotional Intelligence (EQ) and Spiritual Well-Being of Seminarians in the Diocese of Surabaya


  • Stefanus Cahyono University of Santo Tomas
  • Angelina M. Julom


Perceived Parental Bonding, Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Spiritual Well-being.



This study aims to investigate the relationships of perceived parental bonding, emotional intelligence (EQ) and spiritual well-being of seminarians in the diocese of Surabaya, Indonesia, and also to examine the impact of the perceived parental bonding to the emotional intelligence (EQ) and spiritual well-being of the seminarians.


One hundred and thirty four (134) male seminarians from the three seminaries in the diocese of Surabaya were the respondents of this study. Three questionnaires –­­ Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) of G. Parker, Hillary Tupling, and L. Brown, the Baron Emotional Intelligence (Baron-EQ:S), and the Spiritual Well-being Scale (SWBS) of Paloutzian and Ellison were administered to the respondents.


The results reveal that parental bonding is significantly correlated to emotional intelligence (EQ) and spiritual well-being. But, emotional intelligence (EQ) is not significantly correlated to spiritual well-being. Further, the results reveal that 7.6% of the total variance of the respondents’ emotional intelligence (EQ) aresignificantly affected by the perceived maternal overprotection, and 3.7% of the total variance of the respondents’ emotional intelligence are significantly affected by the perceived paternal overprotection. Meanwhile, 5.9 % of the respondents’ total variance of spiritual well-being are significantly affected by the perceived maternal care.




Perceived parental bonding significantly correlates and affects both the emotional intelligence (EQ) and spiritual well-being.

Author Biography

Stefanus Cahyono, University of Santo Tomas

department and rank


• Asghari, M.S. Besharat, M.A.,(2011).The Relationship of Perceived Parenting with Emotional Intelligence, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 30, 231– 235

• Abdollahi, A., Abu Thalib, M., Motalebi, S.A. (2013). Perceived Parenting Styles and Emotional intelligence Among Iranian Boy Students, Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 2 No. 3

• Bahreini, M., Akaberian, S.H., Godsbin, F., Yazdankhah, F.M.R., Mohamaddi, B.M., (2012). The Effect Of Perceived parental bonding On Depression and Self-Esteem in Adolescence, Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 1

• Bar-On, Reuven, Ph.D. (2003). Bar-on Emotional intelligence Inventory: Short version Technical Manusal. USA: Multy-Health-System.

• Beck, R., Mc Donald, A., Allison, S., Norswhorty, L., (2005). Attachment to God and Parents: Testing the Correspondence vs. Compensation Hypotheses, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, Vol. 24, No. 1, 21-28

• Keuskupan Surabaya (2014).Buku Pegangan STPD Formatio 2014-2015, Seminari Tinggi Providentia Dei. Keuskupan Surabaya

• Cella, S., Lanaccone, M., Cotrufo, P., (2013). How Perceived parental bonding Affects Self-Concept and Drive For Thinness: A Community-Based Study,Eating Behaviors Journal 15:110–115.

• Cobb, M., Puchalschy, C., and Rumblod, B., (Eds). (2012). Oxford Text Book On Spirituality in Healthcare. Oxford University Press, p. 353-358

• Daire, Andrew, P., Turk jasmine, J., Jenifer, M., & Domingguez, Vaneza, (2012). Perceived parental bonding and Its Effect on Adolescent’s Substance Use and Sexual Debut,Adultspan Journal, April 2013, Vol. 12 No.1

• Ellison, Craig, W. (1983). Spiritual Well-Being: Conceptualization and Measurement, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 11 No. 4, 230-240

• Ellison, Craig, W., Paloutzian, Raymond, F., Bufford, Roger, K. (1991), Norms Of Spiritual Well-Being Scale, Journal of Psychology and Theology, 1991, Vol. 39 No. 1: 56-70

• Feist, Jess, Feist J. Gregory, Robert, Tomo-Ann (2013). Theories of Personality, Eighth Edition, New York, Mc Graw-Hill

• Freudenstein, O., Zohar, A., Apter, A., Shoval, G., Weizman, A., Zalsman, G. (2011). Perceived parental bonding in Severely Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients, European Psychiatry 26 (2011) 504–507.

• Handa, H., Ito, A., Tsuda, H., Oshawa, I., & Ogawa, T., (2009). Low Level of Perceived parental bonding might be A Risk Factor Among Women with Prolonged Depression: A Preliminary Investigation, Journal compilation, Japanese society of psychiatry and neurology, 63:721-729.

• Hsu, Ya-Fen, Chen, Po-Fei, Lung Fer-Wey (2013). Perceived parental bonding and Personality Characteristics of First Episode Intention to Suicide or Deliberate Self-Harm Without a History of Mental Disorders, BMC Public Health 2013, 13:421.

• Kalaitzaki, A.E., Birtchnell, J. (2014). The Impact of Early Parenting Bonding on Young Adults' Internet Addiction, Through The Mediation Effects of Negative Relating to Others and Sadness, Addictive Behaviors 39: 733–736

• Kenny, M.E., Griffith, J., & Grossman, J., (2005), Self-image and Parental Attachment Among late Adolescents in Belize. Journal of adolescence 28: 649-664

• Limke, A., Mayfield, P.B., (2011).Attachment to God: Differentiating the contributions of Fathers and Mothers Using The Experiences In parental Relationship Scale, University of Central Oklahoma, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 39, No. 2, 122-129

• Mattheus, G., Moshe, Z., & Robert, R. D., (2002). Emotional intelligence, Science and Myth, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

• Mayer, J., Salovey, P., Carusdo, D. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, Findings, and Implications. Psychological Inquiry, Vol. 15 no. 3, 197-215

• Meites, T. M., Ingram, R.E., Siegle, G.J., (2011). Unique and Shared Aspects of Affective Symptomatology: The Role Of Perceived parental bonding in Depression and Anxiety Symptom Profiles, Cogn Ther Res, 36:173–181

• Mikulincer, Mario and Shaver, Philip, R., (2008), Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamic, and Change, New York, The Guilford Press

• Miner, Maureen (2009). The impact of Child-Parent Attachment, Attachment to God, and Religious Orienation on Psychological Adjustment, Journal of Psychology and Theology 2009, Vol. 37, No. 2, 114-124

• Mitsopoulou, E., Giovazolias, T. (2013). The Relationship Between Perceived parental bonding and Bullying: The Mediating Role of Empathy, The European Journal of Counselling Psychology, Vol. 2 (1), 1–16, doi:10.5964/ejcop.v2i1.2

• New Zealand Treasury Working Paper, 2004, Family Formation and Policy. Retrieved November 9, 2014, from /publications/research-policy/wp/2004/04-02/15.htm

• Otani, K.S., Matsumoto, Y., Sibuya, N., Sadahiro, R., Enokido, M., (2013). Parental Overprotection Engenders Dysfunctional Attitudes about Achievement and Dependency in a Gender-Specific Manner,BMC Psychiatry 2013, 13:345 doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-345

• Paloutzian, Raymond, F., & Ellison, Craig, W., (1982). Manual for the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (version 1.1), Life Advanced Inc.

• Parker, G., & Gladstone, G.L., (2005).The Role of Parenting in The Development Of Psychopathology; An Overview of Research Using A Perceived parental bonding Instrument, Journal of Psychopathology and family, Elsevier Ltd.

• Keuskupan Surabaya (2008). Pedoman Seminari Menengah St. Vincentius A Paulo Keuskupan Surabaya.Keuskupan Surabaya.

• Keuskupan Surabaya (2009). Pedoman Tahun Rohani St. Yohanes Maria Vianney. Keuskupan Surabaya

• Pickard, J.G., Nelson-Becker, H., (2011). Attachment and Spiritual Coping: Theory and Practice With Older Adults, Journal of spirituality in Mental Health, 13:138-155

• Raudino, A., Ferguson, David A., & Horwood, John L., (2013). The Quality Of Parent/Child Relationships in Adolescence is Associated With Poor Adult Psychosocial Adjustment, Journal of Adolescence 36 (2013) 331–340

• Reienrt, Duane, F. (2005), Spirituality, Self Representation, and Attachment to Parents, Journal of American Counseling Association, April 2005, Volume 49

• Siomos, K., Evaggelia, D., Lampron, M., (2012). Evolution of Internet Addiction in Greek Adolescent Student Over A Two-Year Period: The Impact of Perceived parental bonding, Springer-Verlag: Eur child Adolesc psychiatry21: 211-219

• Siomos, K., Floros, G., The Relationship Between Optimal Parenting, Internet Addiction and Motives for Social Networking in Adolescence, Psychiatry Research 209 (2013) 529–534

• Keuskupan Surabaya 2007). Tata Hidup Siswa, Seminari Menengah St. Vincentius A Paulo. Keuskupan Surabaya

• Terra, L., Hauck, S., Schestasky, S., Filipon, A.P., Sanches, P., Hirakata, V., & Ceitlin, H.L., (2009). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Perceived parental bonding Instrument in a Brazilian female population,Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry; 43:348-354

• Thompson, Ross, A., (2008), Early Attachment and Later Development, Familiar Question, New Answer, Handbook of Attachment, New York, Guilford Press

• Valiente, C., Romero, N., Hervas, G., Espinosa, R., (2014). Evaluative Beliefs As Mediators Of The Relationship Between Perceived parental bonding and Symptoms of Paranoia and Depression, Psychiatry Research 215:75–81.

• Villa, Carmen Elena (2011), The Affective Formation of Seminarians, Retrived April 3, 2015, from

• Yamawaki, N., Nelson, J.A.P, Omori, Mika (2011). Self-esteem And Life Satisfaction As Mediators Between Perceived parental bonding And Psychological Well-Being in Japanese Young Adults, International Journal of Psychology and Counselling Vol. 3 (1), pp. 1-8




How to Cite

Cahyono, S., & Julom, A. M. (2015). Perceived Parental Bonding, Emotional Intelligence (EQ) and Spiritual Well-Being of Seminarians in the Diocese of Surabaya. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 3(2). Retrieved from