On the political-juridical fundamentals of the Soviet Union (Who did tear down the Berlin Wall?)


  • Robertas Pukenis Doctor of Church and Civil Law, doctor of Italian Civil Law and Lic. of Teology; docent at the Department of Public Administration at the Faculty of Political Science and Diplomacy of Vytautas Magnus University


The collapse of the Soviet Union in a peaceful way was the hugest achievement of progressive forces. The author classifies 12 reasons which have slowly been damaging the political system based on Communist doctrine from inside. The essence of all these reasons is that there was no legal state and which has been ruled by one political party without any juridical logics.  The Communist Party dictated legal principles, created Socialist culture in educating a human being to be without the concept of a Homeland, religion and national habits. These elements have contributed to the development of national movements and to the rebirth of religion among different nations. Yet, in the human history it is well-known that, beyond the objective causes, even subjective reasons turn out to play an important role, as for those that contributed to the fall of the Berlin Wall. In this context, it is also possible to include the action of Mikhail Gorbachev, who had the intention to reform the political system that, for the above mentioned reasons, was not able to cope anymore with the economic requirements of the State. (For this reason, a common say was also introduced: We, here in the Kremlin, launched a joke with the Perestroika, whereas they (the Western countries) have taken it very seriously). However, at the same time, it is important to remember that some personalities such as the Pope Johannes Paul II, Lech Wałęsa and the US President Ronald Reagan, demonstrated to be able to win the widespread sense of fear, inspiring millions of people to pursue the path toward a new life. Their strategy gives us the example that, nowadays, with great and inspired willpower it is still possible to tackle and cease any type of antagonism. The communism has failed its initial project only due to its own mistakes.




Traslation by the author of this article from the book in Italian “L’Inquisizione Rossa†(B. Levitskij, translated by D. Bernardi, Florence, 1969, page 19)

Lenin, “Opere Completeâ€, XXXIII Volume, in 45 V. translated by Di Amadesi L., Rome, 1954-1970 - p.157

Zemcov. Reality and Threat of Perestroika Movement. Guide. London, 1989. p. 448: hundreds of thousands of people started to be gathered in consentration camps and it was labour force for free

L. Shapiro. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, London, 1990. p 646

Cf. Ibid., pages 590-591

Diocesan Commission for the Church of the Silence, Lithuania, the Catholic Church in the storm (in Italian: “Lituania, la Chiesa cattolica nella tormentaâ€), Part 1, (from June 1940 until June 1941), number 5 of the series “Lithuaniaâ€, Urbania, 1967, page 49.

G. Nilov, Grammar of Leninism, London, 1990, p. 44: besides, –all the structures like KGB, VCK, QPU, OGPU, NKVD, KGB were always in the hands of the party as a tool of the power of the party leader…â€)

D. P. Nosrev, On Duty for the State. Leningrad, 1982 (clandestine publication) // Chekistyp. 11.

Cf., J.Barron, KGB. The Secret Work of Soviet Secret Agents, Bantam Books, New York, p. 132.

The daughter of Stalin S. Alliluyevaclaimed in the book “Twenty letters to a friendâ€, translated in Italian by P. Zveteremich, Milanm 1967, p. 241. (the text is translated in English from Italian by the author of this article: “Who did excogitate all this craftiness? He was not the one (not Stalin). It was a system of which he was the first prisoner, in which he was the first to suffocate…â€).

G. Nilov, p. 75: “On October 31, 1925, by the Decision of Stalin M. Frunze has been killed during the surgery oeparation ... This murdering has already been not the first one political crime.. Another example concerns the case of Kuybyschev. His murder was planned in a moment that was very favourable to the rise to the power of Stalin. The majority of the homicides took place in moments that turned out to be extremely opportune to Stalin. Every crime was planned for very precise reasons as well as each homicide was planned just when it was need, neither before nor later.â€)

a. Siniavski, “Che mestiere facevi sotto Stalin?â€, Source: Corriere della Sera, January, 21 1989, page: 5.

The Communist,1956. n. 11, page 20.

Cfr. G. De Vergotini, Diritto costituzionale comparato, Padova, 1989, page: 660.

Aa. Vv. Storia religiosa dei popoli baltici, A. Caprioli, L. Vaccaro, 1987, pages: 243-244.

G. De Vergotini, see the bibliographical part of this article, page: 742.

D. René, I grandi sistemi giuridici contemporanei, published in Padua in 1980, page 182.

Russia // Il tempo, November, 30, 1995, number 327, page 11. Some other historians state that the victims should be even more than 60 million.

G.N. Nicolai, op.cit. p. 118.


Cf. L’Enciclopedia della Storia Universale, De Agostini, Novara, 1995, p. 722.

Cf. V. Vaitiekūnas, The Justice of the Soviets, New York, 1959, p. 65.

Cf. Aa. Vv. The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Vilnius, 1960, p. 427– 428.

D. René, op. cit., page 162.

Ibid. page 162.

Solzenicyn, Arcipelago Gulag 1918-1956, vol. 2, Il rovescio della copertina, translated by: Di Olsufieva. Milano 1976-1978. (All this book underlines the inhuman situations of the Soviet prisons).

N. SadÅ«naitÄ—, Come sono finite nell’obiettivo del KGB, n. 8 della serie “Lituaniaâ€, Urbania, 1984, p. 38.

V. Zaslavsky, Storia del sistma sovietico, l’ascesa, la stabilità , il crollo, Rome, 1995, page 87.

Ibid. page 88.

Ibid. page 98.

G.D. Vergotini, Diritto costituzionale comparato, Padua, 1999, page 654.

Barkauskas, Our Constitution. The Wire of Progress, Vilnius, 1978, p. 19-20.

Ibid. page 575.

At the same time, the text in Italian was already a translation of another official text in Lithuanian language presented by A. Barkauskas, page. 579.

Another example is as follows: […]†- “In the action of the friend Stalin, we can underline two parts: the positive one, that we consider extremely valuable, and the negative one, that we want to deny and refuse†(Once again this text has been translated first in Italian and then in English by the author of the article).

“The Communist Party of the Soviet Union disclosed the advantages of Socialism more than the ones of the Capitalism. It has also faced the widest love and sympathy of the world societyâ€, A. Barkauskas, Our Constitution. The Wire of Progress, Vilnius, 1978, page. 579.

“The imperialists with a temporary victory achieved extraordinary results better than in Finland. They managed to provoke the reactionaries of Finland to act against the Soviet Unionâ€.

H. Carre D’Encause, Decline of Empire, The Soviet Socialist Republics in Revolt. Translated by M. Sokolinsky, H. La Farge, New York, 1979, p.268.

Ibid. page 267: But besides these nationalities there are also the Muslims who form a supranational group, just as affirming a marked speciality.

L. Pietromarchi, Il mondo sovietico, Milan, p. 397.

About many murdered Jewish actors, http://www.1917.org/Biografie_Altri_bolscevichi.html

“The provisions of the Kremlin (that officially denied the existence of anti-Semitic tendencies) and its anti-Semitic policy contributed to stimulate the national rebirth of the Jewish peopleâ€. I. Zemcov, p. 31.

L. Pietromarchi, Sull’antisemitismo (On the Anti-Semitism), Ibid. p.3, quoted pages 422-423.

G. Petrulis, Come ci hanno fucilato (how they shot us), Rome, 1968, page 6.

On the nuclear tests, P. Katinas, The Muslim Roots Rebirth, the newspaper „XXI amžius“, Nr. 90, 08.12.1995, page 3.

L. Pietromarchi, op.cit., page 434.

J. Ehret, Vom imperialismus und messianismus der Russen, Basel, 1973. p. 25: Um seine Erkenntnisse auch der á»­brigen freien Welt zu vermitteln, gab er 1982 in London in englischer Sprache ein Informationswerk heraus, das den Titel trảgt “We will bury you!â€, d. h. “Wir werden euch begraben!â€. Das ist die “Prophezeiungâ€, die seinerzeit Chruschtschow, von 1956 bis 1964 Miniscerprasiảdent der SU, seinen amerikanischen Gegenspielern entgegengeschleudert hatte.

R. David, op. cit. page 161.

For additional information please see: L. Brežnevas, For Fair Democratic Peace, for the Security of Nations and International Cooperation. The Speech in the World Congress of Peaceful Forces. Moscow, 26 10 1973 , Vilnius, 1973, p. 31-33 (only in Lithuanian).

F. Anfossi, In silenzio, compagni // Famiglia Cristiana, 1955, 22nd of November, n.45, pages 89-90.

The Material of the XXVth Meeting of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Vilnius, Mintis, 1976, p. 9. The Presentation of the Secretary of the Central Committee L. Breznev , February 24, 1976.

St. Courtois, N. Werth, J.L. Panné, A. Paczkowski, K. Bartosek, J.L. Margolin, Il libro nero del comunismo. Crimini, terrore, repressioni. (The black book of the communism. Crimes, terror, and repressions). Paris, 1997, page 6.

J.B. Duroselle, Diplomatic History from 1919 until 1970, translated in Italian by Di Puppo F. (title in Italian “Storia diplomatica dal 1919 al 1970â€). Rome, 1972, pages 595-601. “The crisis of Berlin took place with the ultimatum launched by the Muscovite government in order to unify the occidental sector of the city with the sector that was under the Soviet control. At that time, the Allies ran the risk of a real atomic war. But, given the fact that the will of the Western leaders was to pursue a right and peaceful road, the communist action failed. On the 23rd of August 1961, the four states that supervised the organization of Berlin signed a four-party agreement, that entered into force on the 2nd of Septemberâ€.

J.B. Duroselle, Diplomatic History from 1919 until 1970, translated in Italian by Di Puppo F. (title in Italian “Storia diplomatica dal 1919 al 1970â€). Rome, 1972, pages 57-58.

Cf. K. Bielinis, op.cit. pages 60-63.

The official text in Lithuanian language: Translation of the presented text from Italian into English language: The letter to the leaders of the communist parties of Italy, France and Spain: if for the leaders of the Western Communist parties it is important and moral, and if they want to recuperate from the old mistakes when they gave consensus to the policy of genocide, now they have to publically say that: “We are not unanimous with the national policy of the USSR [...] spiritual genocide. We want to believe that the Western communists will find the time and the possibility to understand our painful thoughts […].

Pope Johannes Paul II, Europa un magistero tra storia e profezia, a cura di Spezzibottiani M., Casale Monferrato, 1991.n. 759-760, pages 455-456.

Ibidem, n. 760, page 456.

The New Historical Volume Zanichelli (Il Nuovo Atlante Storico Zanichelli), 1995, page 294, searched word: Solidarność.

BuniÄius, Translation of the text into English from the already existing translation in Italian language: “More democracy! More Glasnost! Gorbachev shouted in Washington, in Paris, in London [..] More socialism! More control! He proclaimed once he came back home. This was not very often underlined. Democracy and socialism are like two bulks of uranium: if they stay close to each other they can generate an explosion that may be more powerful than the one that took place in Chernobyl.

Raila, Crossroads. Radio broadcasting to Lithuania 1986-1988 t. 4. Chicago, 1989, p. 31, 34.

Ibid. page 33

Original text in Russian: “If it is a revolution, then, it is just the revolution of words. In 1970-1980Soviet society felt itself in a new and not ordinary position- it started loosing the speed of economical development.†The text has been taken from “I. Zemcov. Reality and Threats of the Perestroika Movement. Guide. London, 1989. p. 310â€. First of all, the text was translated into Italian and then from Italian into English.

On the history and on the real meaning of the Glasnost it is possible to read on the book: G.M. Nikolaj, “Viaggio lessicale nel paese dei Soviet da Lenin a Gorbaciovâ€, Rome, 1994, page 63.

Cf. I. BuniÄius, op. cit. p. 202.

Original text in Lithuanian language: “I (the President of the Lithuanian Parliament, V. Landsbergis) steadily asked him (M. Gorbachev) to interrupt the Russian troops’ aggression. He did not do that, and this means that he is a murderer. Now we see that in Lithuania are happening the same things that we saw in Baku, Tbilisi, [..] (from the stenographic text of the Parliament).

Cf. I. Zemcov, p. 313: (Tr.). “They (the reforms) of the Soviet Union had to take place in any case, even without Gorbachevâ€.

On the history and on the real meaning of the Glasnost it is possible to read on the book: G.M. Nikolaj, “Viaggio lessicale nel paese dei Soviet da Lenin a Gorbaciovâ€, Rome, 1994, page 63.

Why did not the historians talk about the strict relation between Saddam Hussein and the USSR during the war in Kuwait? All the military equipment there were provided by the Soviet State. And now all the most ferocious regimes obtained the Russian support.

Among the various explanations we can refer to the one given by G. M. Nicolai, op. cit. p.79: “it was a veneer of the façade, an essentially verbal operation leading to make the image of the country more reassuring to the Western eyes. The aim was to show that everything was changing, but in reality the real essence of the things remained the sameâ€.

Vilniaus Tribunolo Nuosprendis (2000), Vilnius, 2000, p. 159.

Johannes Paul II, Varcare la soglia della speranza (“Cross the threshold of the hopeâ€), Milan, 1994, p. 146.




How to Cite

Pukenis, R. (2014). On the political-juridical fundamentals of the Soviet Union (Who did tear down the Berlin Wall?). Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 2(5). Retrieved from https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJHSS/article/view/1580