Improvement of Geo-engineering Properties of Expansive Clayey Soil by using Sodium Chloride and Bagasse Ash
Expansive soils contain minerals such as smectite clays that are capable of absorbing water accompanied by shrink and swell behavior and thus change in volume. The swell–shrink behavior of these soils could lead to instability of the structures found on them, specifically the light-weight structures and pavements. Expansive clay soil is encountered in most parts of Egypt. A comprehensive study was made in Sixth of October city to investigate the impact of lime sludge and bagasse ash as an industrial solid waste from sugar-cane factory and sodium chloride salt on geotechnical engineering properties of expansive soil. The macrostructural properties are quantified through laboratory testing for Free swell index, Plasticity index and infiltration tests. The microstructural aspects of the treated soil are observed through X-ray diffraction studies and SEM micrographs. The laboratory results showed that by increasing the lime sludge, Bagasse ash and NaCl concentrations the liquid limit decreased from 100% to 60% while the plastic limit increased from 100% to 90% respectively. In addition, the infiltration tests showed an increase in the infiltration rate from 10% to 80% when LS and Bagasse ash were added to the soil also the free swell decreased from 100% to 70 % sufficiently. XRD patterns showed the formation of new kaolin cementitious compound as the change of montmorillonite to kaolinite mineral took place due to the reaction of high amount of calcium ions produced from the stabilizer, the cation exchange took place between the calcium cation of the lime associated with the surfaces of the clay particles. The effect of cation exchange and attraction causes clay particles to became close to each other, this process is called flocculation which is accompanied by a series of pozzolanic reactions resulting in the formation of clay aggregates that are bound together by the new cementitious products such as calcium aluminate. Scanning Electron Microscopic images (SEM) and SEM micrographs determined the formation of organized dense clay matrices of aggregations that showed the reduction of Montmorillonite clay mineral peak intensities and an increase in kaolinite clay mineral peak intensities due to the change of expansive soil texture and reduction of interplanar spacing of the treated soil.
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