Polyamines: An Essentially Regulatory Modulator of Plants to Abiotic Stress Tolerance: A Review
Keywords:Abiotic stress, polyamines, stress tolerance, ROS, Transgenic plants
Environmental stimuli including abiotic stresses, most notably salinity, drought, and cold stress greatly impact the growth, development, productivity, and disposal of plants worldwide. It has been calculated that two-thirds of the sustainable crop productivity are routinely facing a great challenge due to the unfavorable environmental factors by reducing the potential yield. There is a substantial amount of evidence to support that polyamines (PAs) are highly accumulated under abiotic stresses. PAs have a low molecular weight, are positively charged at physiological pH, and have a high affinity for nucleic acids and membrane phospholipids, which are found in all living cells. The most frequently used putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spm), and spermine (Spm) are well-known PAs that play a significant role in cell growth and development, leaf senescence, embryogenesis, and modulating plant tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses. These studies are highlights to dissever the action of polyamines mechanism in order to develop new strategies to enhance plant continuity in unfavorable environmental conditions.
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