Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Field Isolate of <i>Eimeria</i> Oocysts Immunization in Two Breeds of Chickens - Demystifying use of Coccidiosis Vaccines
Immunization efficacy of a field isolate of unattenuated sporulated Eimeria oocysts in broiler and Nigerian indigenous chickens (NIC) was investigated. Both breeds of birds were grouped and inoculated with varying dose levels (750, 1500 and 3000) of the oocysts per bird. Â The immunizing infections were truncated with an anticoccidial drug following detection of patency evident by presence of Eimeria oocysts in the faeces of inoculated birds on day 4 of inoculation. Â Immunized birds were then given challenged infections of 10,000 oocysts of the same Eimeria isolate per bird and an additional group that did not receive the immunizing infections was also challenged with 10,000 oocysts to serve as the unimmunized-challenged control while another group remained as uninfected-unchallenged control. Â Immunized birds were found to be protected against the challenge infections evident by having significantly less severe gross lesion scores (0 to 1) in contrast to the unimmunized-challenged control birds (which had lesion scores of 2 to 4 and 1 to 2 in broiler and indigenous chickens respectively). Â The infection was more severe in broiler chickens in contrast to the indigenous chickens judged by more severe lesion scores and significantly higher oocysts counts in the broilers. Â Broilers also had significantly lower PCV (P < 0.05) in comparison to their indigenous counterparts. Â Infected birds generally suffered infections more in contrast to the uninfected control birds judged by the significantly higher body weights and PCV of the uninfected birds (P < 0.05). Â The results showed that the protection of birds against coccidiosis by immunization with the Eimeria isolate is feasible and this can therefore serve as a premise for the recommendation of immunization against coccidioisis in eastern Nigeria where the practice is extremely low or unknown by poultry farmers and hardly recommended to poultry producers by veterinarians and their allies in spite of the endemicty and severity of the disease in the area. Â All the dose levels tried in this study were protective with no obvious differences between the dose levels and we recommended the use of 750 oocysts of such isolates to minimize the risk clinical coccidiosis. Local isolates of Eimeria would also have the added advantage in that they are likely to contain multiple Eimeria species that could provide full protection against the entire spectrum of Eimeria that occur in the area.Â Â
M.M. Hadipour, Olyaie, A., Naderi, M., Azad, F. O. Nekouie, Prevalence of Eimeria species in scavenging native chickens of Shiraz, Iran. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2011, 5: 3296-3299.
L.R. McDougald, Coccidiosis. In Saif et al. (eds), Diseases of poultry farms in Argentina. Avian Diseases, 2003, 41: 923â€“929.
R.A. Dalloul, H.S. Lillehoj, Poultry coccidiosis; Recent advancements in control measures and vaccines development. Expert Rev Vaccines, 2006, 5: 143-163.
H.S. Lillehoj, Kim, C.H., Keeler Jr., C.L., Zhang, S, Immnogenomic approaches to study host immunity to enteric pathogens. Poutry Science. 2007, 86: 1491-1500.
P.A. Sharman, Smith, N.C., Wallach M.G., M. Katrib, Chasing the golden egg: vaccination against poultry coccidiosis. Parasite Immunol. 2010, 32(8): 590-8. doi;10.1111/j.1365-3024.2010.01209.x.
R.B. Williams, R.B. & Catchpole, J. (2000). A new protocol for a challenge test to assess the efficacy of live anticoccidial vaccines for chickens. Vaccine, 18, 1178 -1185
K.R. Price, Use of live vaccines for coccidiosis control in replacement layer pullets.J Appl Poult Res, 2012, 21 (3): 679-692. doi: 10.3382/japr.2011-00486
M.E. Rose, 1973a. Immunity. In: â€˜The coccidiaâ€™ (D.M. Hammond and P.L. Long. eds.), pp. 293-341. Uni. Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
M.E. Rose, Immune responses of chicken to coccidian and coccidiosis. In: Long, P.I., Boorman, K.N., Freeman, B.M. (eds) Avian Coccidiosis 1978, pp.297-338. British Poultry Science Ltd., Edinburg, Uk.
R.B. Williams, Bushell, A.C., RÂ´epÂ´erant, J.-M., Doy, T.G., Morgan, J.H., Shirley, M.W., YvorÂ´e, P., Carr, M.M. & FrÂ´emont, Y, A survey of Eimeria species in commercially-reared chickens in France during 1994. Avian Pathology, 1996, 25: 113â€“130.
H.D. Danforth (1998). Use of live oocyst vaccines in the control of avian coccidiosis: experimental studies and field trials. Int. J. Parasitol. 28: 1099-109.
R. B. Williams, Anticoccidial vaccines for broiler chickens: Pathways to success. Avian Pathology, 2002, 31(4): 317-353, DOI: 10.1080/03079450220148988.
L.A. Ngongeh, Prevalence, characterization and pathogenicity of Eimeria species in chickens reared in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Nigeria. A Fellowship Thesis, College of Veterinary Surgeons Nigeria, 2015.
H.S. Lillehoj, Influence of inoculation dose, inoculation schedule, chicken age and host genetics on disease susceptibility and development of resistance to Eimeria tenella infection. Avian Dis. 1988, 32: 437-444.
M.H. Pinard-Van Der Laan, Monvoisin J.L., Pery P., Hamet N., M. Thomas, Comparison of outbred lines of chickens for resistance to experimental infection with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella). Poult Sci. 1998, 77(2): 185-91.
J.J. Zhu, H.S. Lillehoj, P.C. Allen et al., Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to coccidiosis and growth. Poultry Science, 2003, 82: 9-16.
J.C. Rodriquez J.C., Segura J.C, Alzina A., M.A. Gutierrez, Factors affecting mortality of cross breed and exotic chickens kept under backyard systems Yucatan, Mexico. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 1997, 29: 151-157.
A.J., Trees, Parasitic diseases in F.T.W. Jordan and M. Pattison. Poultry Diseases. Fourth edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Ltd., 1999, 34: 261-281.
M.W. Shirley, Millard, B.J. Studies on the immunogenicity of seven attenuated lines of Eimeria given as a mixture to chickens. Avian Pathology, 1986, 15: 629â€“638.
M.W. Shirley, Control of coccidiosis with vaccines. In Proceedings of the Second Asian/Pacific Poultry Health Conference, 1988a, pp. 129â€“157. Surfersâ€™ Paradise, Australia.
R.B. Williams, Epidemiological aspects of the use of live anticoccidial vaccines for chickens. International Journal for Parasitology, 1998a, 28: 1089â€“1098.
J.W. Ward, J.R. Elsea, Animal case and use in drug fate and metabolism. In: Edward, RJ, Jean LH Editors. Methods and techniques. 1st Edn. New York. Publisher, Markel, 1997.
J.V. Dacie, S.M. Lewis. Practical haematology, eighth ed. Churchill Livingstone, 609, 1995.
MAFF, Manual of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques, Bulletin Number 18, Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (MAFF), HMSO, London, UK, 1977.
D.V. Zander, Diseases of poultry, 7th ed..Iowa State University Press/ Ames, lowa, U.S.A., 1978, pp. 3-48. 6/6/2012.
D.P. Conway, M.E. McKenzie, Examination of lesions and lesion scoring. In: Poultry coccidiosis â€“ diagnostic and testing procedures, 2nd ed. Pfizer Inc., New York. 1991, pp17 â€“36.
D. P. Conway, K. Sasai, S. M. Gaafar, and C. D. Smothers, Effects of different levels of oocyst inocula of Eimeria acervulina, E. tenella, and E. maxima on plasma constituents, packed cell volume, lesion scores, and performance in chickens. Avian Diseases, 1993, 37: 118â€“123.
E.B. Prophet, Mills, B., Arrington, J. B., K.W. Hincliff, Laboratory methods in histotechnology. Washington: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1992.
D.L. Zulpo, J. Peretti, L.M. Ono, E. Longhi and M.R. Oliveira et al., Pathogenicity and histopathological observations of commercial broiler chicks experimentally infected with isolates of Eimeria tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima. Semina Ciencias Agrarias Londrina, 2007, 28: 97-104.
H.D. Danforth, K. Watkins, A. Martin, M. Dekich, Evaluation of the immunizing efficacy of Eimeria maxima oocyst immunization with different strains of day-old broiler and roaster chickens. Avian Dis., 1997, 41(4): 792-801.
A. A. Tarek, Bassant A. El-Sayed, Laila H. El-Saye, Development of immunization trials against Eimeria spp. Trials in Vaccinology. 2016, 5: 38-47.
K. Price, J.R. Barta, Immunological control of coccidiosis, Open Journal Systems, 2010 4(1).
V. McDonald and W.M. Shirley, Past and future: vaccination against Eimeria. Parasitology, 2009, 136: 1477-1489.
Ngongeh, L.A., Onyeabor, A., Nzenwata, E., Gurama, S.K. (2017). Comparative Response of the Nigerian Indigenous and Broiler Chickens to a Field Caecal Isolate of Eimeria Oocysts. Journal of Pathogens. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2674078.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.