In vitro Assessment of Euclea crispa (Thunb.) Leaf Extracts against Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli - Common Diarrhoeal Agents

Kazeem Adekunle Alayande, Carolina (H) Pohl, Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa

Abstract


Diarrhoea is a common childhood disease with high mortality rate. This study thus aimed at assessing effect of Euclea crispa leaf extract and its fractions against diarrhoea causing bacterial isolates and determining time-kill dynamics by each of the potent fractions. Susceptibility of each isolates was determined by agar well diffusion while the minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations were determined by agar dilution method. Time-Kill dynamics was evaluated over a period of 120 min against Escherichia coli (1323) representing Gram negative isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the leaf extract at 20 mg/ml range between 17±0.28 and 22±0.00 mm while that of the partitioned fractions at 10 mg/ml are between 14±0.00 and 22±0.00 mm. MICs of the leaf extract range between 0.31 and 2.50 mg/ml. The lowest MIC (0.08 mg/ml) is exhibited by the fractions partitioned into ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water while that of n-hexane and chloroform is 0.16 mg/ml. The lowest MBC exhibited by all the fractions is 0.31 mg/ml except that of the chloroform (1.25 mg/ml). Total mortality was achieved by the ethyl acetate fraction at a concentration of 2 × MIC after 120 min of contact time, meanwhile the mortality rate achieved by n-butanol, n-hexane, aqueous and chloroform fractions were 98, 94.6, 91.8 and 83.7% respectively under similar condition. This study showcase significant antidiarrhoeal potential of Euclea crispa leaf extracts and equally indicates a source of readily available therapeutic agent against diarrhoeal infection in South Africa and environs.

Keywords


Diarrhoea, Bacteriostatic, Bactericidal, Time-kill dynamics, FT-IR

Full Text:

PDF

References


S. Karambu, V. Matiru, M. Kiptoo, J. Oundo, “Characterization and factors associated with diarrhoeal diseases caused by enteric bacterial pathogens among children aged five years and below attending Igembe District Hospital, Kenya”, Pan. Afr. Med. J. vol. 16, pp. 37, 2013.

L. Liu, H.L. Johnson, S. Cousens, J. Perin, S. Scott, J.E. Lawn, I. Rudan, H. Campbell, R. Cibulskis, M. Li, C. Mathers, R.E. Black, For the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000, Lancet. vol. 379 pp. 2151–2161, 2012.

C.F. Lanata, C.L. Fischer-Walker, A.C. Olascoaga, C.X. Torres, M.J. Aryee, R.E. Black, Global Causes of Diarrheal Disease Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age: A Systematic Review. PLoS ONE vol. 8, no. 9, e72788, 2013.

J. Liu, J. Gratz, A. Maro, H. Kumburu, G. Kibiki, M. Taniuchi, A.M. Howlader, S.U. Sobuz, R. Haque, K.A. Talukder, S. Qureshi, A. Zaidi, D.M. Haverstick, E.R. Houpt, Simultaneous Detection of Six Diarrhea-Causing Bacterial Pathogens with an In-House PCR-Luminex Assay, J. Clin. Microbiol. vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 98–103, 2012.

C.L. Fischer, W.D. Sack, R.E. Black, Etiology of Diarrhea in Older Children, Adolescents and Adults: A Systematic Review. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. vol. 4, no. 8, e768, 2010.

O.O. Igbinosa, E.O. Igbinosa, O.A. Aiyegoro. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of stem bark extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn). Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 058–062, 2009.

J.H. Doughari. Evaluation of antimicrobial potentials of stem bark extract of Erythrina senegalensis DC. Afr. J. Microbiol. vol. 4, no. 17, pp. 1836–1841, 2010.

M. Schuier, H. Sies, B. Illek, H. Fischer. Cocoa-related flavonoids inhibit CFTR-mediated chloride transport across T84 human colon epithelia. J. Nutr. vol. 135, no.10, 2320–2325, 2005.

S. Nicolette, Millennium seed bank project. Kirstenbosch gardens, Available at: http://www.plantzafrica.com. (accessed 10.06.15), 2010.

S. Magama, J.C. Pretorius, P.C. Zietsman. Antimicrobial properties of extracts from Euclea crispa subsp. crispa (Ebenaceae) towards human pathogens. S. Afr. J. Bot. vol. 69, no 2, pp. 193–198, 2003.

M. Alfred. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the people in Nhema communal area, Zimbabwe J. Ethnopharmacol. vol. 136 pp. 347–354, 2011.

J.F. Sobiecki. A preliminary inventory of plants used for psychoactive purposes in southern African healing traditions. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. vol. 57, no. (1&2) pp. 1–24, 2006.

K.A Alayande, C.H. Pohl, A.O.T. Ashafa. “Time-kill kinetics and biocidal effect of Euclea crispa leaf extracts against microbial membrane”, Asian Pac. J Trop. Med. vol. 10 no. 4, 390–399, 2017.

European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. 2016, Version 6.0, http://www.eucast.org

Clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI). “Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria” Approved Guideline-Third Edition (M45, 3rd ed.), Wayne, PA. 2016, ISBN 1-56238-918-1.

European committee for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST). Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibacterial agent by agar dilution. Clin. Microbiol Infect. vol. 6, pp. 509–515, 2000.

Clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI), Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard- tenth edition. CLSI document M07 A10 (ISBN 1-56238-988-2). 950 west valley road suit 2500, Wayne, PA 19087 USA vol. 35 no. 2, 2015. ISBN 1-56238-988-2.

D.A. Akinpelu, E.O. Abioye, O.A. Aiyegoro, F.O. Akinpelu, A.I. Okoh. Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal properties of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax. & Hoffman. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2015; doi.org/10.1155/2015/684839

I. Odenholt, O. Cars, E. Löwdin. “Pharmacodynamic studies of amoxicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae: comparison of a new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation (2000 mg twice daily) with standard dosage regimens”, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. vol. 54 pp. 1062–1066, 2004.

D.A. Akinpelu, K.A. Alayande, O.A. Aiyegoro, F.O. Akinpelu, A.I. Okoh. “Probable mechanisms of biocidal action of Cocos nucifera Husk extract and fractions on bacteria Isolates”, BMC Complement. Altern. Med. vol. 15, pp. 116, 2015a.

R.M. Robins-Browne, E.L. Hartland. “Advances in pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology: Escherichia coli as a cause of diarrhea”, J Gastroenterol Hepatol. vol. 17, pp. 467–475, 2002.

California department of public health (CDPH). Division of Communicable Disease Control. Campylobacteriosis fact sheet. State of California-health and human services agency, 2013 (accessed 09.08.15) https://www.cdph.ca.gov/HealthInfo/discond/Documents/Campylobacter.pdf

World health organization (WHO). “The global view of Campylobacteriosis: report of an expert consultation Utrecht, Netherlands, 9-11 July 2012. Estimating the true incidence of Campylobacteriosis”, 2013 (accessed 09.08.15), www.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/80751/1/9789241564601_eng.pdf

A. Saeed, D. Johansson, G. Sandstr¨om, H. Abd. “Temperature Depended Role of Shigella flexneri Invasion Plasmid on the Interaction with Acanthamoeba castellanii”, Int. J. Microbiol., Article ID 917031, 8 pages. doi: 10.1155/2012/917031. 2012.

S. Ashkenazi, D. Cohen. “An update on vaccines against Shigella”, Ther. Adv. Vaccines. vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 113–123, 2013.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v6i4.5292

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.