Health Risk Analysis of Nickel and Lead Exposure in Drinking Water at Kawasi Village, Obi Island, South Halmahera District, 2015
Keywords:Lead Poisoning, Drinking Water, Environmental Health Risk Analysis, Kawasi Village, Obi Island
Nickel and lead poisoning in drinking water is a major public-health problem at Kawasi Village, as a result of a neglected nickel mining industry that contaminating the source of water in the village. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the risk of exposure to lead via drinking water ingestion pathway for the population of Kawasi Village. The study included 984 respondents, with 328 men aged 18-65 years, 328 women of childbearing-aged 15-45 years, and 328 children aged 6-12 years. The results showed the excess cancer risk (ECR) for women, man, and children at Kawasi Village were 6.006x10-7, 4.103x10-7, and 2.641x10-7, respectively. None of the excess cancer risk (ECR) was found to be greater than >10-4.In addition, the highest concentration intake (Cmax) were 176487491.8 for man, 350543611.7 for women, and 66205364.4 for children. In conclusion, non-carcinogenic risk attributed to ingestion of lead in the drinking water was found to be negligible.
Keywordsâ€” Lead Poisoning, Drinking Water, Environmental Health Risk Analysis, Kawasi Village, Obi Island
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