Comparative Chemotaxonomic Investigations on Physalis angulata Linn. and Physalis micrantha Linn. (Solanaceae)
Keywords:Morphological, Anatomical, Cytological, Phytochemical
The present study is set to investigate the comparative micro- and macro-morphological, anatomical, cytological and phytochemical properties of Physalis angulata Linn. and Physalis micrantha Linn., members of the family Solanaceae predominantly found in the Niger Delta Tropics, Nigeria. They are used as vegetable and medicine. Their habits are annual herbaceous plants which attain up to 50cm or more in height. The leaves are simple, ovate and dentate, acuminate atÂ apex, cuneate to rounded at base and petiolate measuring 6 Â± 2.47cm in length and 3 Â± 1.24cm in width for Physalis angulata Linn. while Physalis micrantha Linn. is 2Â± 1.64cm in length and 2Â± 0.84cm with alternate phyllotaxy.Their glabrous stems are angular with hollow Â and the inflorescence has stalked solitary axilliary flowers. The petals are pale yellowish and sepals greenish which enlarges into an encapsulated 5 lobed, prominently veined,membranous structure housing a many seeded berry fruit measuring 2.5Â± 1.41cm long for Physalis angulata Linn. and 1Â± 0.74cm long for Physalis micrantha Linn. The epidermal studies revealed anomocytic stomata whereas the trichomes are simple uniseriate forms and the flowers are axile in placentation borne at nodes. The anatomy of mid-ribs and petioles showed bicollateral vascular systems. There are 3 vascular traces and node is unilacunar in each species, their stems have 5 to 6 vascular bundles, their petioles are associated with 2 rib traces at primary growth phases. At secondary growth phases, their mid-ribs and petioles revealed vascular arcs and the stems have rings of open vascular systems. The cytological studies showed a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 24 and n = 12 for the haploids. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, combined anthraquinones, free anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides are present in both species.
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