Combined Bioaugmentation and Biostimulation - To Cleanup Endosulfan Contaminated Soil


  • Tejomyee S Bhalerao


This study investigated bioaugmentation and biostimulation separately and at combine status as a strategy for removing soil bound endosulfan. The performance of each treatment was examined by monitoring estimation of free chlorides, endosulfan degradation by HPLC and its effects on soil functionality by monitoring enzyme activities.Combination of bioaugmentation with biostimulation (Aspergillus niger ARIFCC 1053 and 1% glucose) was found to be the most efficient treatment strategy resulting in undetectable levels of endosulfan in just 11 days. Change in pH and increase in released chlorides demonstrate microbial transformation of endosulfan. In treatment 4 pH dropped from 6.9 ± 0.05 to 4.2 ± 0.05 while no significant change in soil pH with treatment 1,2 and 3. The released chlorides increased in accordance with endosulfan degradation in all four treatments but the rate of increase was higher in treatment 4.   In treatment 4, endosulfan was at undetectable level on 11thday and in treatment. Increase in SDA and ARSA was not significant with separate supplementation. However, a combined treatment with A, niger ARIFCC 1053 and glucose proved to be the most efficient in increasing SDA and ARSA among all study. Increase in enzyme activities suggests the soil fertility and possible involvement of these enzymes in endosulfan degradation. Therefore, a combination of bioaugmentation and biostimulation can be used to develop a realistic technology for treatment of endosulfan contaminated soils


S. Abdulsalam, M. Bugaje, S. Adefila and S.Ibrahim, “Comparison of biostimulation and bioaugmentation for remediation of soil contaminated with spent motor oil,†International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol.8(1), pp. 187-194, 2011.

M. Arshad, S. Hussain and M. Saleem, “Optimization of environmental parameters for biodegradation of alpha and beta endosulfan in soil slurry by Pseudomonas aeruginosa,†Journal.of Applied Microbiology, vol. 104, pp. 364–370, 2008.

N. Awasthi, N. Manickam and A. Kumar,â€Biodegradation of endosulfan by a bacterial co-culture,†Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol. 59,pp. 928–934, 1997.

J. Bergmann and J. Sanik, “Determination of trace amounts of chlorine in naptha,†Analytical Chemistry, vol. 29, pp. 241-243, 1957.

T. Bhalerao and P. Puranik, â€Biodegradation of organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan, by a fungal soil isolate Aspergillus niger,†International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 59, pp. 315-321, 2007.

T. Bhalerao, â€Bioremediation of endosulfan-contaminated soil by using bioaugmentation treatment of fungal inoculants Aspergillus niger, Turkish Journal of Biology, vol. 36, pp. 561-567, 2012.

L. Casida D. Klein, and T. Santoro, “Soil dehydrogenase activity,†Soil Science, vol. 98, pp. 371–376, 1964.

G. Clausen, L. Larsen, K.. Johnsen, J. de Lipthay, , J. Aamand, “Quantification of the atrazine-degrading Pseudomonas sp strain ADP in aquifer sediment by quantitative competitive polymerase chain reactionâ€, FEMS Microbial Ecology, vol. 41, (3), pp. 221-229, 2002.

J. Gao, R. Skeen, B. Hooker, R. Quesenberry, “Effects of several substrates on tetrachloroethylene dechlorination in anaerobic soil microcosmsâ€, Water Research, vol. 31, pp. 2479-2486, 1997.

S. Goswami, D. Singh, “Biodegradation of a and b endosulfan in broth medium and soil microcosm by bacterial strain Bordetella sp. B9â€, Biodegradation, vol. 20, pp. 199–207, 2009.

P. Gupta, Pesticide Exposure.Indian Scene. Toxicology, vol, 198, pp. 83- 90, 2004.

S. Kalyani, J. , P. Dureja S. Singh, Lata, “Influence of Endosulfan on Microbial Biomass and Soil Enzymatic Activities of a Tropical Alfisolâ€, Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol. 84, pp. 351–356.

M. Kumar, P. Ligy, “Endosulfan Mineralization by Bacterial Isolates and Possible Degradation Pathway Identificationâ€, Bioremediation Journal, vol. 10 (4), pp. 179–190.

S. Lee, J. Kim, I. Kennedy, J. Park, G. Kwon, S. Hoh, J. Kim, “Biotransformation of an organochlorine insecticide, endosulfan, by Anabaena speciesâ€, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,vol. 51, pp. 1336–1340.

Y. Liu, Y. Xiong, “Purification and characterization of a dimethoate-degrading enzyme of Aspergillus niger ZHY256 isolated from sewageâ€, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, pp. 3746-3749, 2001.

A. Olaniran, D. Pillay, and B. Pillay, “Biostimulation and bioaugmentation enhances aerobic biodegradation of dichloroethenesâ€, Chemosphere, vol. 63 (4) pp. 600-608.

A. Qureshi, M.Mohan, G. Kanade, A. Kapley and H.Purohit, “In situ bioremediation of organochlorine-pesticide-contaminated microcosm soil and evaluation by gene probeâ€, Pest Management Science,vol. 65 (7), pp. 798-804.

P. Savadogo, O. Traoré, M. Topan, H. Tapsoba, P.Sedogo and Y. Bonzi Coulibaly, “ Variation of pesticides residues concentration in the cotton zone soils of Burkina Fasoâ€, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology,vol. 1, pp. 29-39, 2006.

W. Schmidt, C. Hapeman, J. Fettinger, C. Rice and S.Bilboutian, “ Structure and asymmetry in the isomeric conversion of beta to alpha endosulfanâ€, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 45, pp. 1023-1026.

T. Siddique, C. Benedict, A. Okeke and W.T. Frankenberger, “Enrichment and isolation of endosulfan-degrading microorganismsâ€, Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 32, pp. 47-54, 2003.

T. Sutherland, M. Horne, R. Harcourt, R. Russell and J. Oakeshott, “ Isolation and characterization of a Mycobacterium strain that metabolises the insecticide endosulfanâ€, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 93, pp. 380–389.

T. Sutherland, I. Horne, M. Lacey, R. Harcourt, R. Russel and J. Oakeshott, “ Enrichment of an endosulfan-degrading mixed bacterial cultureâ€, Applied and Environmental Microbiology,vol. 66, pp. 2822–2828, 2000.

M. Tabatabai and J.Bremner, “Aryl sulphatase activity of soilsâ€, Soil Sci Soc Am Proc. Vol. 34, pp. 427–429, .

H. Tapsoba, and Y. Bonzi-Coulibaly, “ Cotton production and waters pollution by pesticides in Bukinaâ€, Faso. J. Soc. Ouest-Afr. Chim, vol. 21, pp. 87-93, 2006.

M. Tariq, S. Afzal and I. Hussain, “ Degradation and persistence of cotton pesticides in sandy loam soils from Punjab,Pakistan†, Environmental Research, vol. 100, pp. 184-196.

J. Trevors, “ Dehydrogenase activity in soil, a comparison between INT and TTC assayâ€, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 16,pp. 673–674, 1984.

K. Verma, N. Agrawal, M. Farooq, R. Misra, and R. Hans, “ Endosulfan degradation by a Rhodococcus strain isolated from earthworm gut â€, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 64, pp. 377–38, 2006.

W. Wei-xiang, Y. Qing-fu and M. Hang, “ Effect of straws from Bt transgenic rice on selected biological activities in water-flooded soil â€, European Journal of Soil Biology, vol. 40, pp. 15–22.

G. S. Kwon, H. Y. Sohn, K. S. Shin, E. Kim and B. Seo, “ Biodegradation of the organochlorine insecticide, endosulfan, and the toxic metabolite, endosulfan sulfate, by Klebsiella oxytoca KE-8 â€, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, vol. 67, pp. 845–850, 2005.

R. Martens, “ Degradation of [8, 9-14C] endosulfan by soil microorganismsâ€, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol. 31, pp. 853–858, 1976.




How to Cite

Bhalerao, T. S. (2013). Combined Bioaugmentation and Biostimulation - To Cleanup Endosulfan Contaminated Soil. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 1(5). Retrieved from