Oxidants and Antioxidants Status in Bronchial Asthma


  • Kholoud S. Ramadan
  • M. I. Al-Khalaf


Bronchial asthma, antioxidants, vitamins, inflammation


Asthma is a respiratory disease that is common in Saudi Arabia and characterized by sporadic occurrence of bridge, chronic inflammation of the airways involving recurrent airflow obstruction and increased responsiveness to a variety of stimuli. Recent research suggests that airway inflammation is the most cause of the episodes of airflow limitation in asthma which lead to increase oxidative stress. This imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant has been increasingly recognized as a big factor contributing to the chronic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the role and origin of the oxidant-antioxidant disturbances that participate in the pathophysiology of airway inflammatory diseases. We have updated existing information about effects (effects of oxidants in the lung) of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the lung including the mechanisms of their damaging effect. The first section focuses entirely on the symptoms, the types and stages of bronchial asthma. The second section investigates the role of oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in disease progression of asthma. The last section outlines the therapeutic value of available antioxidant herbals and vitamins that could improve oxidant-antioxidant balance in bronchial asthma disease.


Al Ghobain, M. O, Al-Hajjaj, M. S and Al Moamary, M. S. (2012). Asthma prevalence among 16- to 18-year-old adolescents in Saudi Arabia using the ISAAC questionnaire. BMC Public Health, 12:239.

Alfrayh, A., Bener, A. & Juwadi, T. Q. A. (1992) Prevalence of asthma among Saudi school children. Saudi Med J, 13, 521–524.

Chang, L.Y. and Crapo, J.D. (2002) Inhibition of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity by an antioxidant mimetic. Free Radic Biol Med33: 379-386.

Fanta, C. H. (2009) Asthma. N Engl J Med, 10, 1002-14.


Downs, S. H., Marks, G. B., Sporik, R., Belosouva, E. G., Car, N. G. & Peat, J. K. (2001) Continued increase in the prevalence of asthma and atopy. Arch Dis Child, 84, 20–23.

Lugogo, N., Lgque, Fertel, D. & Kraft, M. (2010) Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, Philadelphia, Saunders.

Strunk, R. C., Weiss, S. T., Yates, K. P., Tonascia, J., Zeiger, R. S. & Szefler, S. J. (2006) Mild to moderate asthma affects lung growth in children and adolescents. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 118, 1040-7.

Vignola, A. M., Chanez, P., Campbell, A. M., Souques, F., Lebel, B. & Enander, I. (1998) Airway inflammation in mild intermittent and in persistent asthma. Am.J.Respir. Crit .Care. Med, 157, 403-409.

Joseph, C. L., Williams, L. K., Ownby, D. R., Saltzgaber, J. & Johnson, C. C. (2006) Applying epidemiologic concepts of primary secondary and tertiary prevention to the elimination of racal disparities in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 117, 233-40.

Takaoka, M. & Norback, D. (2008) Diet among Japanese female university students and asthmatic symptoms, infections, pollen and furry pet allergy. Respiratory Medicine, 102, 1045-1054.

Szefler, S. J. & Apter, A. (2005) Advances in pediatric and adult asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 115, 470-7.

Cataluña, J. & García, M. (2010) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasias. Arch Bronconeumol, 46, 11-7.

Ayres, J. G, Higgins, B., Chilvers, E. R et al. (2004). Efficacy and tolerability of anti-immunoglobulin E therapy with omalizumab in patients with poorly controlled (moderate-to-severe) allergic asthma. Allergy; 59: 701-708.

Kirkham, P., Rahman, I. (2006). Oxidative stress in asthma and COPD: antioxidants as a therapeutic strategy. Pharmacol Ther. 111(2):476-94.

Rahman, I., Morrison, D., Donaldson, K. & Macnee, W. (1996) Systemic oxidative stress in asthma, COPD and smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 154, 1055–1060.

Ozarus, R., Tahan, V., Turkmen, S. & AL, E. (2000) Changes in malondialdehyde levels in bronchoalveolar fluid and serum by the treatment of asthma with inhaled steroid and beta2-agonist. Respirology, 5, 289–292.

Pearson, P.J., Lewis, S.A., Britton, J. and Fogarty, A. (2004) Vitamin E supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomised placebo controlled trial. Thorax59: 652-656.

Mak, J. C. W, Leung, H. C. M., Ho, S. P, Lam, W. K., Tsang, K. W, Ip. M.S., Chan-Yeung, M. (2004) Systemic antioxidant and oxidant status in Chinese asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 114:260-264.

Al-Abdulla, N. O., Al Naama, L. M, Hassan, M. K. (2010). Antioxidant status in acute asthmatic attack in children. J Pak Med Assoc. 60(12):1023-7.

Comhair, S. A. A., Bhathena, P. R., Dweik, R. A., Kavuru, M. & Erzurum, S. C. (2000). Rapid loss of superoxide dismutase activity during antigen-induced asthmatic response. Lancet, 355, 624-633.

Levine, S. J. (1995a). Bronchial epithelial cell-cytokine interactions in airway inflammation. J Invest Med, 43, 241–249.

Caramori, G. & Papi, A. (2004) Oxidants and asthma. Thorax, 59, 170-3.

Gilliland, F. D., LI, Y.-F. & Peters, J. M. (2001) Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and environmental tobacco smoke on asthma and wheezing in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 163, 429-36.

Azzi, A., Gysin, R., Kempná, P., Ricciarelli, R. & Villacorta, L. (2003) The role of a-tocopherol in preventing disease: from epidemiology to molecular events. Mol Aspects Dis 2003; 24:325-36. Mol Aspects Dis, 24, 325-36.

Jeong, D.-W., Yoo, M.-H., Kim, T. S., KIM, J.-H. & KIM, I. Y. (2002) Protection of mice from allergen induced asthma by selenite. J Biol Chem, 277, 17871-6.

Martindale, S., Mcneill, G., Devereux, G., Campbell, D., Russell, G. & Seaton, A. (2005) Antioxidant intake in pregnancy in relation to wheeze and eczema in the first two years of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 17, 121-8.

Shaheen, S. O., Sterne, J. C., Thompson, R. L., Songhurst, C. E., Margetts, B. M. & Burney, P. J. (2001) Dietary antioxidants and asthma in adults Population based case control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 164, 1823-8.

Butland, B., Fehily, A. & Elwood, P. (2000) Diet lung function and lung function decline in a cohort of 2512 middle aged men. Thorax, 55, 102-8.

Devereux, G. & Seaton, A. (2005) Diet as a risk factor for atopy and asthma J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL, 115, 1109-1117.


Mali, R. G. & Dhake, A. S. (2011) A review on herbal antiasthmatics. Pharm Exp Med, 11, 77-90.

Renzi, P.M. (1999). Antileukotriene agents in asthma: The dart that kills the elephant? CMAJ. 26; 160(2): 217–223.

Floreani, A. A. & Rennard, S. I. (1999) The role of cigarette smokes in the pathogenesis of asthma and as a trigger for acute symptoms. Cur Opinion Pulm Med, 5, 38–46.

Diamant, Z., Timmers, M. C., Veen, H. V., Friedman, B. S., Smet, M. D., Depre, M., Hilliard, D., Bel, E. H. & Sterk, P. J. (1995) The effect of MK-0591, a novel 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor on leukotriene biosynthesis and allergen-induced airway responses in asthmatic subjects in vivo. J Aller Clin Immunol, 95, 42–51.

Tamaoki, J., Kondo, M., Sakai, N., et al. (1997) Leukotrienes antagonist prevents exacerbation of asthma during reduction of high–dose inhaled corticosteroid. The Tokyo Joshi-Idai Asthma Research Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155:1235–1240.

Martin, R.J. (2011) Alternative and experimental agents for the treatment of asthma. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed July 13




How to Cite

Ramadan, K. S., & Al-Khalaf, M. I. (2013). Oxidants and Antioxidants Status in Bronchial Asthma. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 1(4). Retrieved from https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAS/article/view/446