A Review of Clayey Soils

Ali Akbar Firoozi, Ali Asghar Firoozi, Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini


Clays in general and expansive soils in particular have been a major concern to geotechnical engineers for many years. Moisture variations produce big volume changes in these types of soils. Several factors like amount and type of clay minerals, soil structure, dry density, confining pressure, moisture content and climate changes influence the amount of swell and shrinkage. These volume changes finally result in serious damage to the various structures including pavements. In addition, clayey soils are usually stiff when they are dry and give up their stiffness as they become saturated. Soft clays (i.e. illite/kaolinite/ montmorillonite) are associated with low compressive strength and excessive settlement. This reduction in strength due to moisture leads to severe damages to buildings and foundations.


Illite; Kaolinite; Montmorillonite; Clay structure; Cation Exchange Capacity; Atterberg limits

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