A Review of Clayey Soils


  • Ali Akbar Firoozi Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Ali Asghar Firoozi Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia


Illite, Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, Clay structure, Cation Exchange Capacity, Atterberg limits


Clays in general and expansive soils in particular have been a major concern to geotechnical engineers for many years. Moisture variations produce big volume changes in these types of soils. Several factors like amount and type of clay minerals, soil structure, dry density, confining pressure, moisture content and climate changes influence the amount of swell and shrinkage. These volume changes finally result in serious damage to the various structures including pavements. In addition, clayey soils are usually stiff when they are dry and give up their stiffness as they become saturated. Soft clays (i.e. illite/kaolinite/ montmorillonite) are associated with low compressive strength and excessive settlement. This reduction in strength due to moisture leads to severe damages to buildings and foundations.


Chen, F.H., “Foundations on expansive soilsâ€, Elsevier, vol. 12. 2012.

Mc Dowell, C., “Stabilization of soils with lime, lime-fly ash, and other lime reactive materialsâ€, Highway Research Board Bulletin, vol. 231. 1959.

Bell, F., “Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soilsâ€, Engineering geology, vol. 42(4): pp. 223-237, 1996.

Venkaramuthyalu, P., K. Ramu, and G. Prasada Raju, “Study on performance of chemically stabilized expansive soilâ€, International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, vol. 2: pp. 139-148, 2012.

Van Der Merwe, D., “The weathering of some basic igneous rocks and their engineering propertiesâ€, The Civil Engineer in South Africa, pp. 213-222, 1964:

Jones, J., D. Parker, and J. Bridgwater, “Axial mixing in a ploughshare mixerâ€, Powder technology, vol. 178(2): pp. 73-86, 2007.

Chittoori, B.C.S., “Clay mineralogy effects on long-term performance of chemically treated expansive claysâ€, ProQuest, 2008.

Firoozi, A. A., Taha, M. R., Firoozi, A. A. & Khan, T. A., “Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Clay Microfabric Evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopyâ€, Measurement, vol. 66, pp. 244-252, 2015.

Chittoori, B.C., et al., “Experimental studies on stabilized clays at various leaching cyclesâ€, Journal of Geotechnical and Geo Environmental Engineering, vol. 139(10): pp. 1665-1675, 2013.

Al-Rawas, A.A. and M.F. Goosen, “Expansive soils: recent advances in characterization and treatmentâ€, Taylor & Francis, 2006.

Firoozi, A. A., Taha, M. R. & Firoozi, A. A., “Nanotechnology in Civil Engineeringâ€, EJGE, vol. 19: pp. 4673-4682, 2014.

Sirivitmaitrie, C., Puppala, A. J., Chikyala, V., Saride, S. & Hoyos, L. R., “Combined lime and cement treatment of expansive soils with low to medium soluble sulfate levelsâ€, American Society of Civil Engineers, Proceedings of the Geo Congress, pp. 646-653, 2008.

Sirivitmaitrie, C., Puppala, A. J., Saride, S. & Hoyos, L., “Combined lime-cement stabilization for longer life of low-volume roadsâ€, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 2204(1): pp. 140-147, 2011.

Das, B., “Principles of foundation engineeringâ€, Cengage learning, 2015.

Peng, X., Horn, R., Peth, S. & Smucker, A., “Quantification of soil shrinkage in 2D by digital image processing of soil surfaceâ€, Soil and Tillage Research, vol. 91(1): p. 173-180, 2006.

Safari, E., Ghazizade, M. J., Abduli, M. & Gatmiri, B., “Variation of crack intensity factor in three compacted clay liners exposed to annual cycle of atmospheric conditions with and without geotextile coverâ€, Waste management, vol. 34(8): pp. 1408-1415, 2014.

Uday, K., Jayanthi, P. N., Singh, D. & Apte, P., “Application of Taguchi Method in Establishing Criticality of Parameters That Influence Cracking Characteristics of Fine-Grained Soilsâ€, Drying Technology, 2015.

Hwang, C., “Determination of material functions for unsaturated flowâ€, Ph. D. dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder, Co, USA, 2002.

Mitchell, J., SOGAK, “Fundamentals of soil behaviorâ€, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

Kibria, G., “Evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of clayey soils using electrical resistivity imaging techniqueâ€, 2014.

Pedarla, A., S. Chittoori, and A.J. Puppala, “Influence of mineralogy and plasticity index on the stabilization effectiveness of expansive claysâ€, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2212(1): p. 91-99, 2011.

Nayak, P.S. and B. Singh, “Instrumental characterization of clay by XRF, XRD and FTIRâ€, Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 30(3): p. 235-238, 2007.

Viennet, J.-C., Hubert, F., Ferrage, E., Tertre, E., Legout, A. & Turpault, M.-P., “Investigation of clay mineralogy in a temperate acidic soil of a forest using X-ray diffraction profile modeling: Beyond the HIS and HIV descriptionâ€, Geoderma, 2015. 241: pp. 75-86.

Prandel, L., Saab, S., Brinatti, A., Giarola, N., Leite, W. & Cassaro, F., “Mineralogical analysis of clays in hard setting soil horizons, by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction using Rietveld methodâ€, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 95: pp. 65-68, 2014.

Casagrande, A., “Discussion on frost heavingâ€, Proceedings, Highway Research Board. vol. 11. pp. 168-172. 1931.

Holtz, R.D., Kovacs, W.D., “An introduction to geotechnical engineeringâ€, 1981.

Skempton, A., “The colloidal activity of claysâ€, 1953.

Holtz, W.G. and H.J. Gibbs, “Engineering properties of expansive claysâ€, Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 121(1): pp. 641-663,1956.

Holz, R. W., “The role of osmotic forces in exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cellsâ€, Annual review of physiology, vol. 48(1), 175-189, 1986.

Singhal, S., “Expansive soil behavior: property measurement techniques and heave prediction methodsâ€, Arizona State University, 2010.

Morris, P.H., J. Graham, and D.J. Williams, “Cracking in drying soilsâ€, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 29(2): pp. 263-277, 1992.

Bai, W., Kong, L.-W., Guo, A.-G. & Li, J., “Temporal Characteristics of Desiccation Cracking and Resistivity of Lateritic Soil in Drying Processâ€, Drying Technology, 2015.

Firoozi, A. A., Taha, M. R. & Firoozi, A. A., T.A. Khan., “Assessment of Nano-Zeolite on Soil Propertiesâ€, Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., vol. 8(19): pp. 292-295, 2014.

Cordero, J., Cuadrado, A., Ledesma, A. & Prat, P., “Patterns of cracking in soils due to drying and wetting cyclesâ€, Unsaturated Soils: Research & Applications, vol. 1: pp. 381, 2014.

Kodikara, J., S. Barbour, and D. Fredlund, “Changes in clay structure and behaviour due to wetting and dryingâ€, 1999.

Péron, H., Hueckel, T., Laloui, L. & Hu, L., “Fundamentals of desiccation cracking of fine-grained soils: experimental characterisation and mechanisms identificationâ€, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 46(10): p. 1177-1201, 2009.




How to Cite

Firoozi, A. A., Firoozi, A. A., & Shojaei Baghini, M. (2017). A Review of Clayey Soils. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 4(6). Retrieved from https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAS/article/view/4301

Most read articles by the same author(s)