Optimizing Ethanol Production in a Microbial Fermentation Model Using an On-Off Feeding Strategy


  • Kasbawati, A. Y. Gunawan Hasanuddin University
  • K. A. Sidarto
  • R. Hertadi


fermentation system, optimal control, hybrid gradient-based numerical method


In a fermentation process, the amount and appropriate timing of feeding nutrient are very essential parameters for achieving efficiency and productivity. In this study, we propose an on-off strategy of feeding glucose for the yeast cell and apply an optimal control theory to ï¬nd an optimal feeding rate and feeding time to produce a high ethanol production. Using a gradient-based method we solve an optimization problem subjected to a state system constrain and an inequality stability constrain. We ï¬nd the following feeding strategies: for feeding with shorter delay requires lower glucose supply whereas for longer one it requires higher supply.



I.C.P. Astudillo and C.A.C. Alzate, “Review: Importance of stability study of con¬tinuous systems for ethanol productionâ€, Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 151, pp. 43–55, 2011.

F.W. Bai, W.A. Anderson, and M. Moo-Young, “Ethanol fermentation technologies from sugar and starch feedstocksâ€, Biotechnology Advances, vol. 26, pp. 89–105, 2008.

L. Laopaiboon, P. Thanonkeo, P. Jaisil, and P. Laopaiboon, “Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice in batch and fed-batch fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiaeâ€, World J. Microbiol Biotechnol, vol. 23, 1497-1501, 2007.

J. Lee, S. Y. Lee, S. Park, and A. P.J. Middelberg, “Control of fed-batch fermenta¬tionsâ€, Biotechnology Advances, vol. 17, pp. 29–48, 1999.

A. A. Esener, T. Veerman, J. A. Roels, and N. W. F. Kossen, “Modeling of bacterial growth; formulation and evaluation of a structured modelâ€, Biotechnol. Bioeng., vol. 24, pp. 1749–1764, 1982.

F. Lei, M. Rotboll, and S.B. Jorgensen, “A biochemically structured model for Saccaromyces cerevisiaeâ€, Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 88, pp. 205–221, 2001.

H. T. B. Pham, G. Larsson, and S.O. Enfors, “Growth and energy metabolism in aerobic fed-batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Simulation and model veriï¬cationâ€, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 60, pp. 1097–0290, 1998.

B. Sonnleitner and O. Kappeli, “Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by its limited respiratory capacity: Formulation and veriï¬cation of a hypothesisâ€, Bio. & Bioeng., vol. 28, pp. 927–937, 1986.

Kasbawati, A. Y. Gunawan, R. Hertadi, and K. A. Sidarto, “Effects of time delay on the dynamics of a kinetic model of a microbial fermentation processâ€, the ANZIAM J., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 336–356, 2014.

D.L. Nelson and M.M. Cox, Lehninger: Principles of biochemistry, Whfreeman, Madison, 4 edition, 2005.

J.T. Pronk, H. Yde Steensma, and J.P. Van Dijken, “Pyruvat metabolism in Sac¬charomyces cerevisiaeâ€, Yeast, vol. 12, pp. 1607-1633, 1996.

F. L. Lewis, Optimal control, A Wiley-Interscience publication, 1986.

I. Schomburg, A. Chang, S. Placzek, C. Shngen, M. Rother, M. Lang, C. Munaretto, S. Ulas, M. Stelzer, A. Grote, M. Scheer, and D. Schomburg, “Brenda in 2013: inte¬grated reactions, kinetic data, enzyme function data, improved disease classiï¬cation: new options and contents in Brendaâ€, Nucleic Acids Res., vol. 41 (Database issue), pp. D764-772, 2013.

D. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithm in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989.

S. Burhenne, D. Jacob, and G. P. Henze, Sampling based on Sobol sequences for Monte Carlo techniques applied to building simulations, In Proceedings of Building Simulation 2011, the 2th Conference of International Building Performance Simula¬tion Association, Sydney, 2011.

J. C. Bezdek, Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Function Algorithms, Springer Publishers, New York, 1981.

J. C. Bezdek, R. Ehrlich, and W. Full, “FCM: The fuzzy c-means clustering algo¬rithmâ€, J. Computers & Geosciences, vol. 10, pp. 191–203, 1984.

R. Duda and P. Hart, Pattern classiï¬cation and scene analysis, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1973.

E. Postma, C. Verduyn, W. A. Scheffers, and J. P. van Dijken, “Enzymic analy¬sis of the crabtree effect in glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeâ€, Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 468–477, 1989.




How to Cite

Gunawan, K. A. Y., Sidarto, K. A., & Hertadi, R. (2016). Optimizing Ethanol Production in a Microbial Fermentation Model Using an On-Off Feeding Strategy. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 4(5). Retrieved from https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAS/article/view/4093