Bacteriostatic Effect of Terminalia catappa Leaves Extract on Clinical Isolates of Gram Negative Bacteria
Keywords:Terminalia catappa, Extract, Biological activity, Clinical isolates, Bacteria
To determine the antibacterial activity type, extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves were tested in vitro on Gram negative bacteria. Extract of Terminalia catappa leaves was obtained from ethanol using percolation method.Â The sensitivity of four clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis and Yersinia enterocolitica was tested. The extract demonstrated strong in vitro antibacterial activity against these organisms at all the concentrations used (20Âµg/disc, 40Âµg/disc, 80Âµg/disc and 160Âµg/disc). Of these bacteria screened for antibacterial activity, M. Morganii appeared to be the most sensitive organism exhibiting growth inhibition zone diameter of 15mm (160Âµg/disc), 14mm (80Âµg/disc), 12mm (40Âµg/disc) and 9mm (20Âµg/disc). It was followed by P. mirabilis and Y. enterocolitica sharing the same zones of growth inhibition of 14mm (160Âµg/disc), 13mm (80Âµg/disc), 10mm (40Âµg/disc) and 8mm (20Âµg/disc) while the least sensitive organism was E. coli with 11mm (160Âµg/disc), 10mm (80Âµg/disc) and 9mm each for 40Âµg/disc and 20Âµg/disc. Â This suggested that the cell wall composition of the former above mentioned bacteria might be different of that of the latter.Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extract was determined at 25Âµg/ml for the entire test organisms. Although the extract revealed a strong inhibitory activity against the test organisms, growth was observed when test-tubes which showed absence of growth at MIC were sub-cultured on solid media to determine Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) meaning that the extract was only bacteriostatic at these concentrations.
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