Larvicidal Efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum Extracts on Mosqutto Larvae

M. Unachukwu, Q. Okelue, O. Ozokonkwo, S. Okolo, P. Onah, R. Okafor

Abstract


Mosquito of the specie Anopheles gambiae is the carrier of most dreaded form of malaria known as falciparum malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum. This diseases has been recorded to kill hundreds to thousands of people yearly especially in Middle East and Africa. Controlling the vector is more preferable than treating the disease. This research is borne out of interest of low income earners or people living below standard securing their homes from these vectors. This research work focuses on monitoring the larvicidal efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (common name-bitter leaf), Ocimum gratissimum (common name-scent leaf) extracts against mosquito larva (a stage in the life cycle of mosquitoes). The plants for the research work were gotten from a location within Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. Their extractions were made using ethanol extraction method, phytochemical analysis of the extracts were carried out and the larvicidal efficacy of both (combined) extracts at different concentrations were tested on 25 mosquito larva. Of all the concentrations; 50mg/ml had the highest efficiency, destroying all the larva within 24hours of exposure, while the concentration of 2.5mg/mlrecorded the least mortality rate and having about six mosquito larva surviving even after 96hours of exposure. These plant extracts have proven to be effective at right concentration and therefore can be used as larvicides.


Keywords


Extracts, mortality rate, mosquito larva, Ocimum gratissimum, phytochemical analysis, Vernonia amygdalina

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References


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