Gait Analysis of Lower Limb Prosthesis with Socket Made from Rattan Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites


  • Agustinus Purna Irawan Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarumanagara University Jakarta
  • I. Wayan Sukania


Rattan fiber, composites, compressive strength, prosthesis socket, gait analysis


Rattan fiber is one of the natural fibers that has good potential to be developed into biocomposite. In this study, we have developed Rattan Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites (RFREC) materials. Composite materials have been developed, used to produce a prototype of lower limb prosthesis, especially in the socket component. In research and development of lower limb prosthetic socket by using RFREC materials, has implemented three tests that the compressive load test refers to ISO 10328, gait analysis by using Six Minute Walk Test Method (6MWT), and psychophysical analysis by measuring the pulse rate of the respondents before and after gait analysis done. The test results showed that maximum compressive load of socket: (5.54 ± 0.3) kN. Such as besides, gait analysis results showed that walking speed: (0.6 ± 0.01) m/s, cadence: (86.3 ± 0.33) steps/min, step width: (20.8 ± 0.84) cm, stride length: (84.4 ± 1.14) cm, stride total: (259 ± 1.00) cycles, and walking length total: (218.6 ± 3.41) m. Furthermore, the result of measurement of pulse rate before test: (84.6 ± 0.83) pulse/min and after test: (88.9 ± 0.92) pulse/min. Therefore RFREC materials can be further developed as prosthesis socket materials with good level in safety and comfort. It can be analyzed from the results of the compressive load test, the results of gait analysis and the results of physiological analysis, as described in this paper.



Mueller D. H. and Krobjilowski A., “New discovery in the properties of composites reinforced with natural fiberâ€, Jurnal of Industrial Textiles, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 111-130, 2003.

Craig J., “Prosthetic feet for low-income countriesâ€, Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, vol. 17, no. 4S, pp. 27-49, 2005.

S.M. Sapuan, M.N.M. Zan, E.S. Zainudin and Prithvi Raj Arora, “Tensile and flexural strengths of coconut spathe-fibre reinforced epoxy compositesâ€, Journal of Tropical Agriculture, vol. 43, pp. 63-65, 2005.

Maya Jacob, Bejoy Francis, Sabu Thomas and K.T. Varughese, “Dynamical mechanical analysis of sisal/oil palm hybrid fiber-reinforced natural rubber composites,†Polimer Composites, pp. 671-680, 2006.

Kaczmar J.W., Pach J. and Kozlowski R., â€Use of natural fibres as fillers for polymer compositesâ€, International Polymer Science and Technology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. T/45-T/50, 2007.

He L.P., Tian Y. and Wang L.L., “Study on ramie, bamboo, dan rotane fiber reinforced polypropylene composite (RF-PP) and its mechanical propertiesâ€, Advanced Materials Research, vol. 41-42, pp. 313-316, 2008.

Irawan, A.P. and Sukania, I.W., “Mechanical characteristics rattan fiber reinforced epoxy composites (RECO) as above knee socket prosthesis materialsâ€, In Proceedings of International Conference on Innovation in Polymer Science and Technology, pp.64-70, 2011.

Irawan, A.P. and Sukania, I.W., “Tensile and impact strength of bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy composite as alternative materials for above knee prosthesis socketâ€, In Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Technology Development, pp. M.109-M.115, 2012.

Irawan, A.P., Soemardi, T.P., Widjajalaksmi K. and Reksoprodjo, A.H.S., â€Tensile and flexural strength of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composites for socket prosthesis applicationâ€, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 46-50, 2011.

Verne T. Inman, Henry J. Ralston and Frank Todd, Human Walking, Williams & Wilkins, 1981.

Rangdall L. Braddom, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Second Edition, W.B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia, 2000.

Sander Mark S. and McCormick Ernest J., Human Dimension and In Engineering And Design, 7th Editions, McGraw-Hill Inc Singapore, 1992.

Grandjean E., Fitting the Task to the Man, A text book of occupational ergonomic, 4th Editions, Taylor & Francis Ltd, London, 1993.

Irawan, A.P., Soemardi, T.P., Widjajalaksmi K. And Reksoprodjo, A.H.S., â€Gait analysis of the prosthesis prototype made from the natural fiber reinforced compositeâ€, In Proceedings of International Conference APHCI ERGOFUTURE, pp. 37-43, 2010.

Tommy Oberg, Alek Karsznia and Kurt Oberg, â€Basic gait parameter: reference data for normal subject, 10-79 years of ageâ€, Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 210-223, 1993.

Kenji Suzuki, Yoshiaki Yamada, Taketoshi Handa, Gen Imada, Tutomu Iwaya and Ryuichi Nakamura, “Relationship between stride length and walking rate in gait training for hemi paretic stroke patientsâ€, American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 147-152, 1999.

Marc Kosak and Teresa Smith, “Comparison of the 2-, 6-, and 12-minute Walk Test in Patients with Strokeâ€, Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 103-108, 2005.

Julie D.R., Echternach J.L., Leah N. and Blodgett M.G., “Test retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for the timed “up & go†test, the six minute walk test, and gait speed in people with alzheimer diseaseâ€, Physical Therapy, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 569-579, 2009.

Vincent G., Marwan I., Gaelle K., Dominic P. and Casillas J.M., “Comparative analysis of oxygen uptake in elderly subjects performing two walk tests: the six minute walk test and the 200-m fast walk testâ€, Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 22, pp. 162-168, 2008.

Signe Brunnstrom, Clinical Kinesiology, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 1983.

BS ISO 10328-3, Prosthetics, structural testing of lower-limb prostheses, principal structural tests, 1996.

T.A. Current, G.F. Kogler and D.G. Barth, â€Static structural testing of transtibial composite socketsâ€, Prosthetics and Orthotics International, vol. 23, pp. 113-122, 1999.

Farahmand F., Rezaeian T., Narimani R. and Hejazi Dinan P., “Kinematic and dynamic analysis of the gait cycle of above-knee amputeesâ€, Scientia Iranica, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 261-271, 2006.

Patricia S. Pohl, Pamela W. Duncan, Subashan Perera, Wen Liu, Sue Min Lai, Stephanie Studenski, Jason Long, “Influence of stroke-related impairments on performance in 6-minute walk testâ€, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1-6, 2002.




How to Cite

Irawan, A. P., & Sukania, I. W. (2015). Gait Analysis of Lower Limb Prosthesis with Socket Made from Rattan Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 3(1). Retrieved from