Study of Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism as a Biomarker in Coronary Artery Diseases
Keywords:Coronary artery diseases, apolipoprotein E, Atherosclerosis, triacylglycerol, HDL-c, LDL-c, Cholesterol
This study aims to evaluate the role of apolipoprotein (apo) E gene mutation of all potentially atherogenic lipoproteins, as predictors of Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD) and its association with other biochemical changes such as; total cholesterol,TG, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c, in absence and presence of diabetes mellitus to reflect the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Results: This study was conducted on 45 individualscategorised into, Control group, Cardiac patients without DM (Group I) and Cardiac patients with DM (Group II). In our studied population, the mean levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and the ratio of LDL/HDL didnâ€™t show any significant increase in group I compared to control group; whereas the mean levels of LDL and HDL showed significant increase compared to control group. The mean level of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL and ratio of LDL/HDL showed significant increase in group II compared to control group.
The major common allele in the control group was E2, which has represented 53.3 %, E3 has represented 33%, while E4 has contributed 14 %, in addition, the major common allele in the group I was E3 that formed 50 % of group I sample, followed by E2 with 33% and tailed by E4 with a 16 % contribution. In contrast to group I, group II major common allele was E3, which has represented 53% of samples examined, whereas E2 and E4 have represented 23.3 % for each.
Conclusion: ApoE expression is considered a good criteria to recognize patients suffering from coronary heart disease. Carriers of E2, E3, and E4 differ in their binding affinity to cholesterol. Carriers of the E3, E4 alleles are slower to clear dietary fat from the blood, whereas carriers E2 has high affinity for cholesterol and shows a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. This study clearly concludes that people who have alleles E2/E2, E2/E4 may not suffer from coronary heart disease.
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