Effects of Methanol Extraction on Some Nutritional and Antinutrient Contents of <i>Xylopia aethiopica</i> Fruits from Enugu State, Nigeria


  • Innocent Uzochukwu Okagu Medical Biochemistry, Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State,
  • Victor Nwadiogbu Ogugua Medical Biochemistry, Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State,
  • Celestine Nworji Dibor Medical Biochemistry, Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State
  • Maryann Uchechukwu Ifeanacho Medical Biochemistry, Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State,
  • Miracle Ekene Nnebe Medical Biochemistry, Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State,
  • Chidimma Cynthia Aniehe Medical Biochemistry, Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State,
  • Chinyere Jane Odenigbo Medical Biochemistry, Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State,
  • Uchenna Ekpereamaka Ngwu Medical Biochemistry, Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State,




Xylopia aethiopica, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, proximate, mineral, phytochemical, solvent extraction


Mineral contents and amino acid and fatty acid profiles of Xylopia aethiopica fruits from Enugu State, Nigeria were evaluated in this study. The amino acid and fatty acid profiles, phytochemical, proximate, mineral, anti-nutrient and vitamin contents of X. aethiopica fruits were determined using standard methods. The proximate, vitamins, phytochemical, anti-nutrient of both the crude and methanol extract were determined while the mineral and amino acid profile were determined in the crude fruit powder while fatty acid profile was determined in the oil extract of the fruits. Results show that the predominant amino acids present include proline, alanine, norleucine, isoleucine, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, and tryptophan. Also, the most abundant fatty acids include arachidonic acid, dihomoÏ’-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, caproic acid, linoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid and myristic acid. The mineral contents of X. aethiopica fruits detected in high amount were calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium. Sodium, zinc and manganese were detected in lower amounts. However, lead, silicon, nickel and chromium were not detected. The result of the proximate analysis shows moisture, total protein, crude ash, total fat, crude fibre, and carbohydrate contents. Anthraquinone was not detected in both crude and methanol extract of the fruit. The concentration of flavonoids, steroids, anthocyanin and terpenoids were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in crude sample when compared with methanol extract. The levels of carotenoid and glycosides were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the methanol extract when compared with crude sample. Vitamins B1, B3, B6, B9, B12, C and E levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in crude extract when compared with methanol extract. However, vitamin A content was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in methanol extract when compared with crude extract. Results obtained showed that X. aethiopica fruits are rich in nutrients and that methanol extraction decreased the anti-nutrient contents of the fruits thereby increasing the bioavailability of the nutritive factors. However, the quantities of some of the nutritive factors were reduced after extraction


Kabera, N.J., Semana, E., Mussa, A.R., and Xin, H., (2014). Plant secondary metabolites: Biosynthesis, classification, function and pharmacological properties. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2: 377-392.

Adaramoye, O.A., Sarkar, J., Singh, N., Meena, S., Changkija, B., Yadav, P.P., Kanojiya, S., and Sinha, S., (2011). Anti-proliferative action of Xylopia aethiopica fruit extract on human cervical cancer cells. Phytotherapy Research 25: 1558-1563.

Harris, D.J., Moutsambe J.M., Kami, E., Florence, J., Bridgewater, S. and Wortley, A.H. (2011). An introduction to the trees from the North of the Republic of Congo. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. pp. 325-390.

Karioti, A., Hadjipavlou-Litina, D., Mensah, M.L.K., Fleischer, T.C., and Skaltsa, H., (2004). Composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica (Dun) A. Rich. (Annonaceae) leaves, stem bark, root bark, and fresh and dried fruits, growing in Ghana. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 52(26): 8094-8098.

John-Dewole, O.O., Agunbiade, S.O., Alao O.O., and Arojojoye O.A., (2012). Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of extract of the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica for medicinal importance. E3 Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research 3(6): 118-122.

Moukette, B., Pieme C.A., Nya Biapa, P.C., and Ngogang, J.Y., (2015). In vitro antioxidant and anti lipo-peroxidative activities of bark extracts of Xylopia aethiopica against ion-mediated toxicity on liver homogenates. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine 12(3): 195–204.

Wouatsa, N.A.V., Misra, L., and Kumar, R.V. (2014). Antibacterial activity of essential oils of edible spices, Ocimum canum and Xylopia Aethiopica. Journal of Food Science, 61: 2-8.

Nwaichi E. O., and Igbinobaro, O., (2012). Effects of some selected spices on some biochemical profile of Wistar albino rats. American Journal of Environmental Engineering 2(1): 8-11.

Ezekwesili, C.N., Nwodo, O.F., Eneh, F.U., and Ogbunugafor, H.A., (2010). Investigation of the chemical composition and biological activity of Xylopia aethiopica. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(43): 7352-7356.

Shanmugam, P., Anura W.D., Nedra, K., Gavin Carr, D.S.A., Wijesundara, R.A., and Veranja, K., (2008). Antioxidant constituents from Xylopia championii Pharmaceutical Biology 46(5): 352-355.

Choumessi, T.A., Danel, M., Chassaing, S., Truchet, I., Penlap, V.B., Pieme, A.C., Asonganyi, T., Ducommum, B., and Valette, A., (2012). Characterization of the anti-proliferative activity of Xylopia aethiopica. Cell Division 7: 8-10.

Adefegha, S.A., and Oboh, G., (2012). Effect of diets supplemented with Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)] on some biochemical parameters in normal rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 16: S558-S566.

Boampong, J. N., Ameyaw, E. O., Aboagye, B., Asare, K., Kyei, S., Donfack, J.H., and Woode, E., (2013). The curative and prophylactic effects of xylopic acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice. Journal of Parasitology Research, 2013: Article ID 356107.

Etoundi, C.B., Kuaté, D., Ngondi, J.L., and Oben, J., (2010). Anti-amylase, anti-lipase and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of some Cameroonian spices. Journal of Natural Products 3: 165-171.

Okpashi, V.E., Bayim, P.R., and Obi-Abang, M., (2014). Comparative effects of some medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats. Biochemistry Research International 2014: Article ID 203051.

Okagu, I.U., Ngwu, U.E., and Odenigbo, C.J., (2018). Bioactive constituents of methanol extract of Xylopia aethiopica (UDA) fruits from Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal 5: 1-11.

Harbone, J.B., (1973). Phytochemicals Methods - A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 1st Edition. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London. pp. 49-188.

Trease, G.E., and Evans, W.C., (¬1989). Pharmacognosy. 13th Edition. Bailliere Tindall Books Publishers, London.

AOAC., (2010). Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition, Revision 3. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington DC.

Abolaji, O.A., Adebayo, A.H., and Odesanmi, O.S., (2007). Nutritional qualities of three medicinal plant parts (Xylopia aethiopica, Blighia sapida and Parinari polyandra) commonly used by pregnant Women in the Western Part of Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6(6): 665-668.

Udofia, U.S., and Alozie, Y.E., (2015). Nutrients and phytochemical composition of spices in relation to health (“Uyayak†(Tetrapleura tetraptera), “Odusa†(Piper guineense), “Inwun†(Monodora myristica) and “Ata†(Xylopia aethiopica). Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment 11(2): 211-214.

Bouba, A.A., Njintang, N.Y., Foyet, H.S., Scher, J., Montet, D., and Mbofung, C.M.F., (2012). Proximate composition, mineral and vitamin content of some wild plants used as spices in Cameroon. Food and Nutrition Sciences 3: 423-432.

Marreiro, D.N., Cruz, K.J., Morais, J.B., Beserr, J.B., Severo, J.S., and Soares de Olivero, A.R., (2017). Zinc and oxidative stress. Antioxidants, 6: 24-32.

Yerke, L.M., Jamjoom, A., Zahid, T.M., and Cohen, R.E. (2017). The effect of platelet-rich fibrin, calcium sulfate hemihydrate, platelet-rich plasma and resorbable collagen on soft tissue closure of extraction sites. Journal of Functional Biomaterials 8(2): 17-24.

Jin, J., Mulesa, L., and Rouillet, M., (2017). Trace elements in parenteral nutrition. Nutrients 9: 440-450.

Liu, X., Dong, M., Chen, X., Jiang, M., Lv, X., and Yan, G., (2007). Antioxidant activity and phenolics of an endophytic Xylaria spp from Ginkgo biloba. Food Chemistry 105(2): 548–54.

Jahnen-Dechent, W., and Ketteler, M., (2012). Magnesium basics. Clinical Kidney Journal 5: 3-14.

Ramadass, S., Basu, S., and Srinivasan, A.R., (2015). Serum magnesium levels as an indicator of status of diabetes mellitus type 2. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome 9: 42-45.

Parikh, M., and Webb, S., (2012). Cations: Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 195-198.

Elhassan, I.A., Elamin, E.E., and Ayoub, S.M.H., (2009). Characterization of Lipid Compounds of the Dried Fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich Growing in Sudan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (10): 1592-1595.

Elhassan, I.A., and Ayoub, S.M.H., (2014). Effects of geographic location on essential oil content and composition of Xylopia aethiopica. American Journal of Research Communication 2(1): 251-261.

Kratz, M.C.P., and Wahrburg, U., (2002). The impact of dietary mono and poly-unsaturated fatty acids on risk factors for atherosclerosis in humans. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 104: 300-311.

Ristić-Medić, D., VuÄić, V., Takić, M., Karadžić, I., and Glibetić, M., (2013). Polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease. Journal of Serbian Chemical Society 78(9): 1269-1289.

Cossignani, L., Giua, L., Urbani, E., Simonetti, M.S., and Blasi, F., (2014). Fatty acid composition and CLA-content in goat milk and cheese samples from Umbrian market. European Food Research and Technology 239: 905-911.

Prisco, D., Filippini, M., Francalanci, I., Paniccia, R., Gensini, G. F., Abbate, R., and Serneri, G.G.N., (1996). Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on phospholipid fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocytes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63: 925-932.

AL-Jawadia, A., Moussa, H., Ramalingama, L., Dharmawardhane, S., Gollahona, L., Gunaratne, P., Rahmang, R.L., and Moustaid-Moussaa, N., (2018). Protective properties of n-3 fatty acids and implications in obesity-associated breast cancer. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 53: 1-8.

Meletis, C.D., and Barker, J.E., (2005). Therapeutic uses of amino acids. Alternative and Complementary Therapies 11: 24-28.

Peng, L., Yu-Long, Y., Defa, L., Sung-Woo, K., and Guoyao, W., (2007). Amino acids and immune function. British Journal of Nutrition 98: 237-252.

Abdalbasit, A.M., Sara, Y.A., Siddig, I.A., Sit, F.C., Ahmed, M.E., Samia, O.Y., and Shiou W.G., (2012). Effects of roasting and boiling on the chemical composition, amino acids and oil stability of safflower seeds. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 47: 1737-1743.

Adaramoye, O.A., Bosede, O., Popoo, L., and Farombi, E.O., (2010). Effects of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) fruit methanol extract on-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of adult male Wistar rats. Acta Biologica Hungarica 61(3): 250-261.

Horax, R., Hettiarachchy, N., Kannan, A., and Chen, P., (2010). Proximate composition and amino acid and mineral contents of Mormordica charantia pericarp and seeds at different maturity stages. Food Chemistry 122: 1111-1115.

Michael, A.W., and Hugh, N.T., (1998). Antioxidant characteristics of L-histidine. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 9: 308-315.

Onuegbu, N.C., Adedokun, I.I., Kabuo, N.O., and Nwosu, J.N., (2011). Amino acid profile and micronutrient composition of the African pear (Dacryodes edulis) pulp. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10: 555-557.

Fetse, J.P., William, K. and Reimmel, K.A., (2016). Xylopia aethiopica: A review of its ethnomedicinal, chemical and pharmacological properties. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 11(1): 1-21.

Tanwar, B., and Modgil, R., (2012). Flavonoids: Dietary occurrence and health benefits. Spatula DD 2(1): 59-68.

Okwu, D.E. (2004). Phytochemical and vitamin content of indigenous spices of south Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment 6: 30-34.

Yusuf, A.Z., Zakir, A., Shemau, Z., Abdullahi, M., and Halima, S.A., (2014). Phytochemical analysis of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata linn. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 6(2): 10-16.

Keita, B., Sidibe, L., Figneredo, G., and Chalchat, J.C., (2003). Chemical composition of the essential oil of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich from Mali. Journal of Essential Oil Research 15(4): 267-269.

Fleischer, T.C., Mensah, M.L., Mensah, A.Y., Komlaga, G., Gbedema, S.Y., and Skaltsa, H., (2003). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 5(4): 391-3.

Harbone, J.B., (1998). Phytochemicals methods- A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3rd Edition. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London. pp. 182-190.

Praveen, K.A., and Kumud, U., (2012). Tannins are astringent. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1(3): 45-50.

Degenhardt, J., Gershenzon, J., Baldwin, I.T., and Kessler, A., (2003). Attracting friends to feast on foes: Engineering terpene emission to make crop plants more attractive to herbivore enemies. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14: 169-176.

Dudareva, N., Pichersky, E., and Gershenzon, J., (2004). Biochemistry of plant volatiles. Plant Physiology 135: 1893-1902.

Aguoru, C.U., Pilla, C., and Olasan, J.O., (2016). Phytochemical screening of Xylopia aethiopica with emphasis on its medicinally active principles. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 10(22): 306-309.

Omeh, Y.N., Onoja, S.O., Ezeja, M.I., Bassey, S., Ogbenta, G., and Adetayo, A.B., (2014). Phytochemical, nutrient composition and serum lipid lowering effect of Xylopia aethiopica fruit. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 4(17): 2096-2105.

Enemchukwu, B.N., Erimujor, S.O. and Ubaoji, K.I. (2014). Phytochemical screening and biochemical effects of aqueous seed extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Uda) on selected haematological indices in male Wistar albino rats. The Bioscientist, 2(1): 103-109.

Ekpo, I. A., Agbor, R.B., Osuagwu, A. N., Ekanem, B. E., Okpako, E. C. and Urua, I. S. (2012). Phytochemical and comparative studies of the stem bark and root of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal.) A. Rich. World Journal of Biological Research, 5(2): 41-44.

Zlotek, U., Mikulska, S., Nagajek, M., and Swieca, M., (2016). The effect of different solvents and number of extraction steps on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of basil leaves’ (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 23: 628-633.

Watson, D.A., Randall, B.W., Nevenimo, T., Moxon, J., and Wallace, H., (2017). Shelf life of tropical canariun nut stored under ambient conditions. Horticulture 3: 24-33.

Shirley, R.B., and Parsons, C.M., (2001). Effects of ash content on protein quality of meat and bone meal. Poultry Science 80: 626-632.

Jahan-Mihan, A., Luhovyy, B.L., El Khoury, D., and Anderson, G.A., (2011). Dietary proteins as determinants of metabolic and physiologic functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Nutrients 3: 574-603.

Zingler, E., Amato, A., Zanatta, A., Vogt, M., Wenderley, M., Neto, C. And Zaconeta, A. (2017). Lactation induction in a commissioned mother by surrogacy: Effects of prolactin levels, milk secretion and mother satisfaction. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 39: 86-89.

Slattery, M.L., Benson, J., Ma, K., Curtin, K.N., Schaeffer, J., and Potter, D., (2000). Carotenoids and colon cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71: 575-582.

Faiza, R. Waqas, K.K, Adeel, M., and Muhammad, G., (2013). Detection of bioactive fractions of Xylopia aethiopica fruits. Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences, 1(3): 388-398.

Zingg, J.M., Azii, A. and Myedani, M., (2008). Genetic polymorphisms as determinates for disease-preventive effects of vitamin E. Nutritional Reviews 66: 406-410.

Salovaara, S., Sandberg, A.S., and Andlid, T., (2002). Organic acids influence iron uptake in the human epithelial cell line CaCo-3. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 50: 6233-6238.

McLaren, D.S., and Frigg, M., (2001). What Vitamin A Does and How it Works: Sight and Life Guidebook on Vitamin A in Health and Disease. 2nd Edition. pp. 1-40.

McCormick, D.B., (2015). Two Interconnected B vitamins: Riboflavin and pyridoxine. Physiological Review 69: 1170-1198.

Chaney, S.G., (2011). Vitamins and Minerals: Requirement and Function. In: Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations. Devlin, T.M. (Ed.). 7th Edition. pp. 1072-1092.

Bora, P., (2014). Anti-nutritional factors in food and their effects. Journal of Academia and Industrial Research 3(6): 285-290.

Gemede, H.F., and Ratta, N., (2014). Anti-nutritional factors in plant foods: Potential health benefits and adverse effects. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 3(4): 284-289.

Fereidoon, S., (2014). Beneficial health effects and drawbacks of anti-nutrients and phytochemicals in foods. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 97: 45-55.

Young, V.R., (2011). Soy proteins in relation to human protein and amino acids nutrition. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 91: 828-835.

Tadele, Y., (2015). Important anti-nutritional substances and inherent toxicants of feeds. Food Science and Quality Management 36: 1-8

Akande, K.E., Doma, U.D., Agu, H.O., and Adamu, H.M., (2010). Major anti-nutrients found in plant protein sources: Their effect on nutrition. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (8): 827-832.

Adepoju, O. T., Boyejo, O., and Adeniji, P.A., (2016). Effects of processing methods on nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis) products. Food Chemistry 106: 4-5.

Do, Q.D., Angkawijaya, A.E., Tran-Nguyen, P.L., Huynh, L.H., Soetaredjo, F.E., Ismadji, S., and Yi-Hsu, J., (2014). Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 22: 296-302.

Hassan, L.G., Dangoggo, S.M., Umar, K.J., Sa’idu, I., and Folorunsho, F.A., (2008). Proximate, minerals and anti-nutritional factors of Daniellia oliveri seed kernel. Chemclass Journal 5: 31-36.

Hassan, L.G., Umar, K.J., Dangoggo, S.M., and Maigandi, A.S., (2011). Antinutrient composition and bioavailability prediction as exemplified by calcium, iron and zinc in Melocia corchorifolia leaves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10(1): 23-28.




How to Cite

Okagu, I. U., Ogugua, V. N., Dibor, C. N., Ifeanacho, M. U., Nnebe, M. E., Aniehe, C. C., Odenigbo, C. J., & Ngwu, U. E. (2018). Effects of Methanol Extraction on Some Nutritional and Antinutrient Contents of <i>Xylopia aethiopica</i> Fruits from Enugu State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.24203/ajafs.v6i3.5337