Evaluation of Functional, Proximate, Microbial and Sensory Properties of Pearl Millet-Bambara Ground Nut <i>Yarsala </i>(A Traditional Deep-fried Fermented Puff)


  • Gervase Ikechukwu Agbara University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
  • Fatima Ajiya Masaya
  • Mamudu Halidu Badau
  • Odera Amin Igwegbe
  • Alkali Mohammed Yakaka


Millet, Bambara groundnut, Yarsala, Fermentation, Frying


Pearl millet flour were partially substituted with bambara nut(30-50%) to form blends which were used to prepare yarsala; the functional and the microbial status of the blends as well as the proximate and sensory properties of the yarsala were analysed. Supplementation  increased the water absorption capacities(1.61-1.69ml/g) and decreased swelling capacities(28.21%-37.68%), the oil absorption capacities(0.91-0.99ml/g) and the wettabilities(10.40-11.57secs) which decreased progressively with increased bambara nut flour addition;  the emulsion capacities(37.33-44.22%.) and stabilities(29.68-52.33%), foam capacities(30.00-38.74%) and stabilities(5.35-8.61%) were also highest in 30% supplementation thereafter dropped progressively. The moisture, ash, fat, protein, fibre and carbohydrate contents of yarsala were 7.50-8.59%, 1.40-1.62%, 18.05-20.36%, 8.82-15.46%, 1.50-2.20% and 55.41-59.33% respectively; the food energy(444.81-455.84 kcal) were highest in the control. Bacterial, mould-yeast, S.aureus, E. coli, and Coliform counts were 1.07x104 - 1.45x104, 1.96x104 - 2.33x104,1.03x102 - 2.70x102, 1.02x102-2.30x102 and1.64x102-4.25x102, Salmonella spp were not detected. There were no significance difference in the appearance and aroma of yarsala however the control had better taste, texture and greater acceptability. Functional properties of the blends as well as the nutrient density of yarsala were enhanced with bambara nut addition; the blends could be utilized for  other millet-based food products as well.

Author Biography

Gervase Ikechukwu Agbara, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

Food Science and Technology, Snr. Lec.


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How to Cite

Agbara, G. I., Masaya, F. A., Badau, M. H., Igwegbe, O. A., & Yakaka, A. M. (2018). Evaluation of Functional, Proximate, Microbial and Sensory Properties of Pearl Millet-Bambara Ground Nut <i>Yarsala </i>(A Traditional Deep-fried Fermented Puff). Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 6(2). Retrieved from https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAFS/article/view/5260