Effect of the Seed Morphology on the Separation Yield, Chemical Characteristics and Thickening Capacity of Carob (<i>Ceratonia siliqua L.</i>) Gums
Keywords:Carob seed morphology, Locust bean gum, galactomannans, sugar composition, macromolecular size properties, solution apparent viscosity, intrinsic viscosity, radius of gyration
The present work aims at bringing new insights into the galactomannan physicochemical characteristics through an unprecedented approach: relationship between the morphology of carob seeds and corresponding gums chemical and physical properties. Therefore, four commercial carob seeds with different granulometries were studied. Their endosperms (Locust bean gum, LBG) were evaluated in term of yield, chemical composition, sugar composition and macromolecular and rheological properties. Acid dehulling furnished a gum yield in the range of 39.4-42.0%. The greater size of the seeds allowed an easier dehulling and a production of more and purer gum flour. The viscosity of 1% LBG aqueous solutions varied widely from 903 to 2081 mPas and appeared to be influenced by the seed size. The mannose to galactose ratio, of the extracted gums, did not show clear difference that may explain the difference in viscosity. However, the macromolecular size values for intrinsic viscosity [Î·] and radius of gyration (Rg) of the extracted gums, increased from 11.73 to 13.64 dl.g-1 and from 71.7 to 76.6 nm, respectively, with increasing seed morphology. Moreover, the total galactomannan content varied from 74.88 to 83.79 with increasing seed size. The best thickening properties were observed for the gum from the seeds with the highest size, in consistence with their macromolecular features, combining probably with their total galactomannan content. The physicochemical characteristics of locust bean gum flours were found to be dependent on the carob seeds morphology.
Albersheim, P., Nevins, D.J., English, P.D., Karr, A., â€œA method for the analysis of sugars in plant cell-wall polysaccharides by gas-liquid chromatographyâ€, Carbohydrate Research, vol.5, pp.340-345, 1967.
Anderson, D.M.W., â€œNitrogen convertion factors for the proteinaceous content of gums permitted as food additivesâ€. Food Additives and Contaminants, vol.3, pp.225-230, 1986.
Azero E. G., Andrade C. T., â€œTesting procedures for galactomannan purificationâ€ Polymer Testing, vol.21, no.5, pp.551-556, 2002.
Bargallo, M. G., Di Lorenzo, R., Meli, R, Crescimanno, F.G. â€œCharacterization of carob gerplasm (Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Sicilyâ€, Journal of Horticultural Science, vol.72, no.4, pp.537-543, 1997.
Blakeney, A.B., Harris, P.J., Henry R.J., Stone, B.A., â€œA simple and rapide preparation of alditol acetates for monosaccharide analysisâ€. Carbohydrate Research, vol.113, pp.291-299, 1983.
Bouzouita, N., Khaldi, A., Zgoulli, S., Chebil, L., Chekki, R., Chaabouni, M.M. and Thonart, P., â€œThe Analysis of Crude and Purified Locust Bean Gum: A Comparison of Samples from Different Carob Tree Populations in Tunisiaâ€, Food Chemistry, vol.101, pp.1508-1515, 2007.
Brummer, Y., Cui, W., Wang, Q., â€œExtraction, purification and physicochemical characterization of fenugreek gumâ€. Food Hydrocolloids, vol.17, pp.229-236, 2003.
Cheng Y.; Brown K. M., Prudâ€™homme R. K., â€œPreparation and characterization of molecular weight fractions of guar galactomannans using acid and enzymatic hydrolysisâ€,. Int j biol macromol. vol.31, no.1-3, pp.29-35, 2002.
da Silva, J.A.L., GonÃ§alves, M.P., â€œStudies on a purification method for locust bean gum by precipitation with isopropanolâ€, Food Hydrocolloids, vol.4, pp.277â€“287, 1990.
Daas Piet, J.H., Schols Henk, A., De Jongh Harmen, H.J., â€œOn the galactosyl distribution of commercial galactomannansâ€. Carbohydrate Research, vol.329, no.3, pp.609-619. 2000.
Dakia, P.A., Wathelet, B., Paquot, M., Isolation and chemical evaluation of the carob (Ceratonia siliqua L) seeds germ. Food Chemistry. Vol.102, no.4, pp.1368-1374, 2007.
Dakia, P.A., Christophe Blecker, Christelle Robert, Wathelet, B., Paquot, M. Composition and physicochemical properties of locust bean gum extracted from whole seeds by acid or water dehulling pre-treatment. Food Hydrocolloids, vol.22, no.5, pp.807-818. 2008.
Dakia P.A., Whatelet, B., Paquot M., Influence de la teneur en galactose sur les interactions molÃ©culaires et sur les propriÃ©tÃ©s physico-chimiques des galactomannanes en solution. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. Vol.14, no.1, pp.213-223, 2010.
Dakia, P. A.. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Seeds, endosperm and germ composition, and application to health. In V. R. Preedy, R. R. Watson, V. B. Patel (Editors), Nuts & Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention (1st ed.) (pp 293-299). London, Burlington, San Diego: Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier. 2011.
Dea, I.C.M., Morrison, A., â€œChemistry and interactions of seed galactomannansâ€. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, vol.31, pp.241â€“242, 1975.
Deuel, H., Neukom, H. Some properties of locust bean gum in Natural Plant Hydrocolloids (Adv. Chem. Series No. 11) pp. 51-61. 1954.
El Batal H., Hasib, A. Ouatmane, A. Boulli, A. Dehbi, F. Jaouad A., â€œYield and composition of carob bean gum produced from different Moroccan populations of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.)â€, Journal of Materials and Environmental Science. Vol.4, no.2, pp.309-314, 2013.
Fernandes, P. B., GonÃ§alves M. P., Doublier J. L., â€œA rheological characterization of kappa-carrageenan/galactomannan mixed gels: A comparison of locust bean gum samplesâ€. Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.16, no.3, pp.253-274, 1991.
Folch, Lees, M., Stanley, S.G.H., â€œA simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissuesâ€, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.226, pp.497â€“509, 1957.
Gainsford, S.E., Harding, S.E., Mitchell, J.R., Bradley, T.D., A comparison between the hot and cold water-soluble fractions of two locust bean gum samples. Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.6, pp.423â€“442, 1986.
Ganter J. L. M. S. Reicher F. â€œWater-soluble galactomannans from seeds of Mimosaceae spp.â€ Bioresource Technology, vol.68, no.1, pp.55-62, 1999.
Gillet S., Blecker, C., Aguedo, M., Laurent, P., Paquot, M., Richel A. Impact of purification and process on the chemical structure and physical properties of locust bean gum, Carbohydrate Polymer. Vol.108, pp.159â€“168, 2014.
Gillet, S., Aguedo, M., Petrut, R, Olive, G., Anastas, P., Blecker, C., Richel, A. â€œStructure impact of two galactomannan fractions on their viscosity properties in dilute solution, unperturbed state and gel stateâ€. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol.96, pp.550â€“559, 2017.
Goycoolea, F.M., Morris, E.R., Gidley, M.J., â€œViscosity of galactomannans at alkaline and neutral pH: Evidence of â€˜hyperentanglementâ€™ in solutionâ€, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.27, pp.69â€“71, 1995.
Guler-Akin, M.B., Goncu, B., Akin, M.S. â€œSome Properties of Probiotic Yoghurt Ice Cream Supplemented with Carob Extract and Whey Powderâ€. Advances in Microbiology, vol.6, pp.1010-1020, 2016.
Haddarah A., Ismail A., Bassal A., Hamieh T., Ghoul M., â€œMorphological and chemical variability of lebanese carob varietiesâ€. European scientific journal, vol.9, no.18, pp353â€“369, 2013.
Haddarah, A., Bassal, A., Ismail, A., Gaiani, C., Ioannou, I., Charbonnel, C., Hamieh, T., Ghoul M. â€œThe structural characteristics and rheological properties of Lebanese locust bean gum.â€ Journal of Food Engineering, vol.120, pp.204â€“214, 2014.
Hui, P.A., Neukom, H., â€œProperties of galactomannansâ€. Tappi. Vol.47, pp.39-42, 1964.
KÄ±vrak N. E., AskÄ±n B., Kucukoner E, â€œComparison of Some Physicochemical Properties of Locust Bean Seeds Gum Extracted by Acid and Water Pre-Treatmentsâ€, Food and Nutrition Sciences, vol.6, pp.278-286, 2015.
Lazaridou, A., Biliaderis, C.G., Izydorczyk, M.S., â€œStructural characteristics and rheological properties of locust bean galactomannans: A comparison of samples from different carob tree populationsâ€. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol.81, pp.68â€“75, 2000.
Lundin L., Hermansson A.-M., â€œInfluence of locust bean gum on the rheological behaviour and microstructure of K-Îº-carrageenanâ€. Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.28, no.2, pp.91-99. 1995.
Maier H., Anderson M., Karl C., Magnuson K., Whistler R.L., 1993. Guar, locust bean, tara and fenugreek gums. In: Whistler, R.L. and BeMiller, J.N. Editors. Industrial gums, polysaccharides and their derivates,(Pp 205-215). San Diego: Academic Press.
Mao, C-F. Chen, J-C.. â€œInterchain association of locust bean gum in sucrose solutions: An interpretation based on thixotropic behaviorâ€. Food Hydrocolloids, vol.20, no.5, pp.730-739, 2006.
Richardson, P.H., Willmer, J., Foster, T.J., â€œDilute properties of guar and locust bean gum in sucrose solutionsâ€. Food Hydrocolloids, vol.12, pp.339-348, 1998.
Rizzo, V., Tomaselli, F., Gentile, A., La Malfa S., Maccarone, E. â€œRheological properties and sugar composition of locust bean gum from different carob varieties (Ceratonia siliqua L.)â€. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.52, no.26, pp.7925-30, 2004.
Sittikijyothin, W., Torres D., GonÃ§alves, M.P., â€œModelling the rheological behaviour of galactomannan aqueous solutionsâ€, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.59, no.3, pp.339-350, 2005.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.