Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Physico-chemical and Functional Characteristics of Peanut Protein Isolates Extracted from Defatted Cold Pressed Peanut Meal Flour (Arachishypogaea L.)

Tamba S. Sonda, Sanpha Kallon, Daniel Moiforay


Peanut protein was isolated from cold pressed peanut meal, hydrolyzed using neutral proteinase.Comparative analysis of the physico-chemical and functional properties of the isolates and hydrolysates were carried out. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the hydrolysates had smaller particle sizes. Protein solubility was pH dependent with the hydrolysates exhibiting higher solubility at almost all pH levels. The isolates also demonstrated superior emulsifying and foaming characteristics. The extent of proteolysis on individual amino acids was dependent on their hydropathy characteristics. Arginine, lysine and glutamic acid with hydropathy indices of -4.5, -3.9 and -3.5 respectively, were found to have undergone effective proteolysis. The hydropathy characteristics, to some extent, influenced the rate of generation of free amino acids. As expected, the hydrolysates recorded lower molecular weights than the isolates. The thermal denaturation temperature for the hydrolysates was lower than the denaturation temperature for the isolate. 


Peanut meal cake, hydrolysates, isolates, hydropathy characteristics, molecular weight

Full Text:



Kritchevsky, D. 1995. Dietary protein, cholesterol and atherosclerosis: A review of the early history. J. Nutr. 125

(Suppl.): 589S – 593S

Lichtenstein, A.H. 1998. Soy protein, isoflavones and cardiovascular disease risk. J. Nutr. 128, 1589 – 1592.

Sanders, T.H., R. W McMichael Jr, and K. W. Hendrix 2000. Occurrence of resveratrol in edible peanuts. J. Agric.

Food Chem 48(4): 1243 – 1246

Alper, C.M. and R.D Mattes 2003. Peanut consumption improves indices of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy

adults. Journal of American College of Nutrition. 22 (2):133 - 141

Mukuddem-Petersen, J., W. Oosthuizen and J.C. Jerling 2005. A systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood

lipid profiles in humans. J. Nutr. 135(9): 2082 – 2089

Zheng L, Ren J, Su G, Yang B, Zhao M. 2013. Comparison of in vitro digestion characteristics and

antioxidant activity of hot-and cold-pressed peanut meals. Food Chem: 15:141(4):4246-52

Lack, G., D. Fox, K Northstoneand , J. Golding 2003. ‘Factors associated with the development of peanut allergy

in childhood. New England Journal of Medicine 348: 977 – 985.

Montgomery, R 1961. Further studies of the phenol-sulphuric acid reagent for carbohydrates. .Biochem.,Biophys.

Acta 48:591 - 593

Puski, G. 1975. Modification of functional properties of soy proteins by proteolytic enzyme treatment. Cereal

Chem. 52:655 – 664

Adler-Nissen, J. 1976. Enzymatic hydrolysis of protein for increased solubility. J. Agric. Food Chem. 24:1090 –

Kim, S.Y., P.S.W. Park and K.C. Rhee 1990. Functional properties of proteolytic enzyme modified soy protein

isolate. J. Agric. Food Chem 38: 651 – 656

Panyam, D and A. Kilara. 1996. Enhancing the functionality of food proteins by enzymatic modification, Trends

Food SciTechnol7:120–125.

Aluko RE and E. Monu 2003. Functional and bioactive properties of quinoa seed protein hydrolysates, J. Food

Sci. 68(4):1254-1258.

Spellman, D., G. O'Cuinn, and R.J. FitzGerald 2005. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of whey protein

hydrolysates generated at different total solids levels. J Dairy Res 72(2):138-143.

Larre, C., W. Mulder, R., Sánchez-Vioque, J. Lazko, S. Berot and J. Gueguen 2006. Characterisation and foaming

properties of hydrolysates derived from rapeseed isolate, Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces49: 40–48.

Mahmoud, M.I., W.T. Malone and C.T. Cordle 1992. Enzymatic hydrolysis of casein: effect of degree of

hydrolysis on antigenicity and physicalproperties, J Food Sci57, 1223–1229

Mahmoud, M.I. 1994. Physicochemical and functional properties of protein hydrolysates in nutritional products,

Food Technol48:89–95.

Clemente, A 2000. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates in human nutrition, Trends in Food Science and Technology,

: 254–262

Manninen, AH. 2004. Protein hydrolysates in sports and exercise: A brief review, J Sports Sci Med 3:60-63

Adler-Nissen, J. 1978. Enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein for nutritional fortification of low pH food, Annales

de la nutrition et de l’alimentation32(2-3): 205-216.

Webb, KE. 1990. Intestinal absorption of protein hydrolysis products: A review. J AnimSci68(9):3011-3022.

Pena-Ramos, E.A. and Y.L Xiong 2003. Whey and soy protein hydrolysates inhibit lipid oxidation in cooked pork

patties. MeatSci64(3) : 259-263.

Kain, R. J. andZ. Chen 2008. Physicochemical Characterisation of Heat and Cold Pressed Peanut Meal Flours.

Asian Journal of Biochemistry 3 (4): 256-266

Kim, S.Y., P.S.W. Park and K.C. Rhee 1990. Functional properties of proteolytic enzyme modified soy protein

isolate. J. Agric. Food Chem 38: 651 – 656

AOAC, 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington,DC

Bligh, E.G. and W.J. Dyer 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification, Canadian Journal of

Biochemistry and Physiology37:911–917.

Achouri, A., Zhang, W., Shiying, X. 1998. Enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein isolate and effect of succinylation

on the functional properties of resulting protein hydrolysates, Food Res. Intl., 31: 617 - 623

Adler-Nissen J. 1986. Enzymic hydrolysis of food proteins. London: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd, Pp.

Ponnampalam, R., G. Goulet, J. Amiot and G..J Brisson 1987. Some functional and nutritional properties of oat

flours as affected by proteolysis, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chem.35: 279–285.

Guan, X., H. Yao, Z. Chen, L. Shan and M. Zhang 2007.. Some functional properties of oat bran protein concentrate

Fernandez, Q.A. and M. T. Macarulla 1997. Composition and functional properties of protein isolates obtained

from commercial legumes grown in northern Spain, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 51:331–342.

Neto, V.Q., N. Narain, J. B. Silva, and P. S. Bora 2001. Functional properties of raw and heat processed cashew

nut (Anarcarduimoccidentale, L.) kernel protein isolate, Nahrung/Food45: 258–2

Men,G..T and C.-Y. Ma 2001. Thermal properties of Phaseolusangularis (red bean) globulin, Food Chemistry

: 453–460

Montgomery, R 1961. Further studies of the phenol-sulphuric acid reagent for carbohydrates. Biochem.,Biophys.

Acta 48:591 - 593

Garcia, W.J., C. W. Blessin and G. E. Inglett,. 1972. Mineral constituents in corn and wheat germ by atomic

absorption spectroscopy. Cereal Chem. 49:158-167.

Tausaky, H.H. &Shorr, E. (1953). A micro colorimetric method for the determination of inorganic phosphorus.

J. Biol. Chem. 202, 675-685

Radha, C., P.R. Kumar and V. Prakash. 2008. Preparation and characterization of a protein hydrolysates from an

oilseed flour mixture. Food Chem. 106(3): 1166-1174

Chabanon, G.., I. Chevalot, X. Framboisier, S. Chenu, and I. Marc 2007. Hydrolysis of rapeseed protein isolates:

Kinetics, characterization and functional properties of hydrolysates Journal of Food Engineering, 82 (4):568 - 576

Mahajan, A. and S. Dua 1998. Improvement of functional properties of rapeseed (Brassica campestrisvartoria)

meal by reducing antinutritional factors employing enzymatic modification, Food Hydrocol12: 349–355.

Lawal, O.S., K. O. Adebowale and Y. A.Adebowale 2007. Functional properties of native and chemically modified

protein concentrates from bambarra groundnut. Food Science & Technol. 40 (9): 1520 - 15

Lawal, O.S. 2004. Functionality of African locust bean (Parkiabiglobssa) protein isolate: effects of pH, ionic

strength and various protein concentration, Food Chemistry85:345–355.

.Kyte, J and R.F Doolittle 1982. A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. J. Mol.

Biol. 157 (1): 105 – 3

Zhu, K., Zhou, H., Qian, H. (2006). Comparative study of chemical composition and physicochemical properties

of defatted wheat germ flour and its protein isolate, Journal of Food Biochemistry, 30, 329-341

Li Wang, QunfengNiu, Yanbo Hui, HualiJin, andShengsheng Chen (2015).Assessment of Taste Attributes

of Peanut Meal Enzymatic-Hydrolysis Hydrolysates Using an Electronic Tongue, Sensors 15(5), 11169-

Paraado, J., F. Millan, I. Hernandez-Pinzon, J. Bautista and A Machado 1993. Characterization of enzymatic

sunflower protein hydrolysates, Journal of Agricultural Food Chem.41: 1821–1825.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.