Insecticidal and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of <i>Bidens Pilosa </i>Linn. Var. Radita (Asteraceae) Towards Stored Bambara Groundnut Insect and Fungi Pests
Keywords:Bambara groundnut, Bidens pilosa, Callosobruchus maculatus, essential oil
The present research studies in on hand the degradation of seeds due to pests: Callosobruchus maculatus and some fungi during 5 months and in other hand the efficiency of essential oil (EO) of fresh leaves of Bidens pilosa (Asteracea) to prevent these pest attacks on Bambara groundnut (BG) in the Far-North Region of Cameroon. The major constituents of the leaves EO were methyl Î±-pinene (14.71%), E-caryophyllene (13.47%), Î²-ocimene (12.83%) and cadinene (10.05%). Towards insect pest, the effective concentrations of B. pilosa that kill 50%, 80% and 99% population of C. maculatus were respectively 2.48, 3.46 and 4.07 mg/ml. At the LC50, EO protects 62.33 g of 100 g of BG after five month storage. The LC80 and LC99 of B. pilosa, reduced respectively 85 and 98% of damages of C. maculatus. Concerning fungi, 6 species beloging to 4 gender are isolated on untreated BG seeds after 5 months of storage: Aspergillus, Penicellium, Fusarium and Mucor. EO of fresh leaves of B. pilosa effectively reduced the fungal development. The sample treated with LC80 and LC99 have 4 species namely P. roquefortii (13.33 to 16.33%), A. Niger (20 to 24%), A. fumigatus (10 to 13.33%) and Mucor spp. (3.33 to 6%). This composition made clear the insecticidal and antifungal activities of the EO of B. pilosa and indicated its potential to protect BG from pest attacks..
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