Development and Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessment of Diet in Lower and Middle Income Countries; A study among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Nepal.


  • Dilip Upreti University of Aberdeen
  • Janet Kyle
  • Padam Simkhada
  • Janine Thoulass
  • Geraldine McNeil


HIV/AIDS, Food, Nutrition, Diet, FFQ, Validation, Nepal


Assessing the validity of a Food FrequencyQuestionnaire (FFQ) by comparison with other established dietary assessmentmethods is essential prior to use of a new FFQ in different population groups.In this study a new FFQ for Nepal was developed with 73 food items andadministered by an interviewer who then carried out a 24-h recall.  73 adults living with HIV/HIDS (43M and 30F)were purposively recruited. A nutrient database to estimate the intake ofenergy and macronutrients (fat, protein, and carbohydrate) and selectedmicronutrients (iron, β-carotene and vitamin C) was compiled from Nepalese,Indian and UK based on food composition tables. Comparison of mean intakes bythe two methods showed good agreement between the FFQ and 24-h recall for themean intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, iron, vitamin C and Vitamin A(all p>0.20) but fat intake was significantly lower by the FFQ than the 24-hrecall (p<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficients between the methodsranged from 0.50 to 0.60 for energy and macronutrients but were below 0.3 formicronutrients. Bland-Altman analyses showed reasonable agreement between thegroup means but wide individual differences between methods. The newly designedsemi-quantitative FFQ can estimate the group mean intake for selectednutrients.

Author Biography

Dilip Upreti, University of Aberdeen

Public Health NutritionGroupInstitute of AppliedHealth SciencesUniversity of AberdeenPolwarth Building, room1.040Foresterhill, Aberdeen,Scotland,UK


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Upreti, D., Kyle, J., Simkhada, P., Thoulass, J., & McNeil, G. (2015). Development and Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessment of Diet in Lower and Middle Income Countries; A study among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Nepal. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(6). Retrieved from