Consumer Acceptability and Physico-chemical Composition of Coconut Spreadable Cheese Substitute


  • Eufemio Barcelon University of Santo Tomas
  • Adrienne Neenah Panganiban Catapang University of Santo Tomas
  • Alvin James Velasco Gonzales University of Santo Tomas
  • Rollan Laguardia University of Santo Tomas
  • Wanina Larice Pineda University of Santo Tomas
  • Mariah Eleanor Domingo Salcedo University of Santo Tomas
  • Jessica Faye Villaruz University of Santo Tomas


coconut milk, spreadable cheese substitute and consumer acceptability


The aim of this study was to develop a coconut milk-based cheese spread and determine its acceptability among young, adult and elderly consumers as well as to determine its physico-chemical composition. The sensory characteristics and physico-chemical composition of the coconut spreadable cheese substitute (CSCS) was evaluated and compared to a commercial cheese spread. Consumer acceptability of CSCS by the said consumers were proven to be significantly different (P<0.05) in all attributes, wherein the CSCS was favoured more than the commercial cheese spread by both the adult and elderly consumers. In addition, the flavour of the CSCS was described by these groups of panellists as having a smoother texture and a less salty taste. Among the three groups of consumers, the elderly consumers highly preferred the CSCS than young and adult consumers. In terms of its physico-chemical composition, there are significant differences between the two cheese spreads except for pH. The difference between the chemical composition of CSCS and commercial cheese spread reflected the differences between its formulations. Overall, the use of coconut milk in making cheese substitute is feasible and is highly acceptable to the groups of consumers.


AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 13th ed. AOAC International, Washington, D.C., 2012.

Bonder, B. R., & Bello-Haas, V. D. Functional Performance in Older Adults. 3rd ed. F.A. Davis Company, USA, 2009.

Bryant, A., Ustunol, Z., & Steffe, J. “Texture of Cheddar Cheese as Influenced by Fat Reductionâ€, Journal of Food Science, vol. 60, pp. 1216–1219, 1995.

Dayrit, F., Buenafe, O., Chainani, E., de Vera, I., Dimzon, I., Gonzales, E., & Santos, J. “Standard for Essential Composition and Quality Factors of Commercial Virgin Coconut Oil and its Differential from RBD Coconut Oil and Copra Oilâ€, Philippine Journal of Science, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 119-129, 2007.

Dimitreli, G., & Thomareis, A.S. “Effect of Temperature and Chemical Composition on Processed Cheese Apparent Viscosityâ€, J. Food Eng., vol. 64, pp. 265-271, 2004.

El-Nimr, A. A., Hesham, A., Eissa, M. M., El-Abd, A. A., Hayam, M., Abbas, M. & Bayoumi, H. M. “Water Activity, Color Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Egyptian Gouda Cheese during Ripeningâ€, Journal of American Science, 2010.

Fox, P.F., Guinee, T.P., Cogan, T.M. & Mcsweeney, P.L.H. Fundamental of Cheese Science. Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland, 2000.

Gaman, P.M. & Sherrington, K.B. “The Science of Food: An introduction to Food Science Nutrition and Microbiologyâ€, Pergamon Press Oxford, pp. 196-215, 1998.

Krupa, H., Atanu, H., & Patel, H.G., “Synergy of Dairy with Non-dairy Ingredients or Product: A Reviewâ€, African Journal of Food Science, vol. 5, no. 16, pp. 817-832, 2011.

Kycia, K., Pluta A., & Zmarlicki, S. “Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Processed Cheese Spreads Made with the Addition of Cheese Base Obtained from of Milk Retentatesâ€, Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci, vol. 15 & 56, no. 1, pp. 113–118, 2006.

Lee, S. K. & Klostermeyer, H. “The Effect of pH on the Rheological Properties of Reduced-Fat Model Processed Cheese Spreadsâ€, Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-Technol., vol. 34, pp. 288–292, 2001.

Muir, D., Tamime, A., Sheena, M., & Dawood, A. “Processed Cheese Analogues Incorporating Fat–Subtitutesâ€, Lebensm-Wiss u-Technology, vol. 32, pp. 41-49, 1999.

Mounsey, J.S. “Effect of Wheat Starch on Imitation Cheese Textureâ€, Journal of Food Technology, vol. 7, pp. 30-33, 2009

Nielsen, S. Food Analysis. Springer, New York, USA, 2010.

Ong, L., Dagastine, R. R., Kentish, S. E., & Gras S. L. “The Effect of pH at Renneting on the Microstructure, Composition and Texture of Cheddar Cheeseâ€, Food Research International, vol. 48, pp. 119-130, 2012.

Sanchez, P., & Rasco, P. “Utilization of Coconut in White Soft Cheese Productionâ€, Philipp. J. Crop Sci, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 93-99, 1983.

Saxon, S. V., Etten, M. J., & Perkins E. A. A Guide for the helping Professions: Physical Change and Aging. Springer Publishing Company, NY, 2010.

Schmidl, M. K. & Labuza, T. P. Essentials of Functional Foods. Aspen Publisher, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 2000.

Siddiq, M., Ahmed, J., Lobo, M. G., & Ozadali, F. Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. A John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publication, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford U.K., 2012.

Solowiej, B. “Effect of pH on Rheological Properties and Meltability of Proccessed Cheese Analogues with Whey Productsâ€, Pol. J. of Food Nutr. Sci., vol. 57, no. 3, pp 125-128, 2007.

Stone, H. & Sidel J.L. Sensory Evaluation Practices, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1993.

Tan, A. G. & Coramora, M. (2010). Improvement of Soy Cheese Analogue. Department of Food Technology, University of Santo Tomas

Verma, S.K., Upadhyay, S., Chandra, R., & Paul, A. “Preparation of Processed Cheese Spread using Tofu, Mozzarella and Cheddar Cheeseâ€, International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 2, pp. 19-23, 2013

Wansink, B., Cheney, M., Chan, N. “Exploring Comfort Food Preferences across Age and Genderâ€, Physiology & Behavior, pp. 739– 747, 2003.

Whitman, S. (2014). Is Coconut Milk Lactose Free? Available from: Accessed: 2014 October 20.

Yildiz, F. Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other

Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press., USA, 2010.

Zapsalis, C., & Anderle, R. Food Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Canada, 1985.




How to Cite

Barcelon, E., Catapang, A. N. P., Gonzales, A. J. V., Laguardia, R., Pineda, W. L., Salcedo, M. E. D., & Villaruz, J. F. (2015). Consumer Acceptability and Physico-chemical Composition of Coconut Spreadable Cheese Substitute. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(1). Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)