Chemical Composition of Raw Milk Produced and Distributed In Khartoum State, Sudan
Keywords:Physicochemical, milk, marketing channels, Sudan
This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical properties of raw milk from different marketing channels in Omdurman and Khartoum North towns, Sudan.Â A total of 150 samples of raw milk were collected from distribution channels (pick-up trucks, venders on donkeys cart farms) in each town, and subjected to physicochemical analysis (fat, protein, total solids (TS), solids-non fat (SNF), lactose, density, acidity and added water). The highest contents of fat and added water were found in Omdurman, while the highest acidity was recorded in samples from Khartoum North. Among the distribution channels, the highest fat and TS contents and acidity were in pick-up trucks, and the lowest in venders on donkeysâ€™ cart and farms. The highest added water was obtained in venders on donkey cart. In Omdurman, the highest fat and TS contents were in samples collected from pickup- trucks, while the lowest fat and TS contents were in farmâ€™s milk. Furthermore, the acidity was higher in milk samples collected from venders on donkeysâ€™ cart compared to farmâ€™s milk. In Khartoum North, the highest fat content was in milk from pick-up trucks, whereas the lowest was in venders on donkeys. Â The highest contents of protein and acidity were obtained in farms' milk and venders' on donkey cart, respectively.
â€¢ Abdalla, M.O.M and F.M.M. Elhagaz, The Impact of applying some hygienic practices on raw milk quality in Khartoum State, Sudan, Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 7 (2), 169-173, 2011
â€¢ Abd Elrahman, M.A.S., A.M.M. Said Ahmad, I.E.M. El Zubeir, O.A.O. EL Owni and M.K.A Ahmed, Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties of Raw Milk Used for Processing Pasteurized Milk in Blue Nile Dairy Company (Sudan), Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(4), 3433-3437, 2009.
â€¢ AOAC. Association Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th Ed, Washington DC, USA, 2000.
â€¢ BarÅ‚owska, J., Y. Litwinczuk, A. Brodziak, and W. Chabuz, Effect of the production season on nutritional value and technological suitability of milk obtained from intensive (TMR) and traditional feeding system of cows, Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 1 (5), 1205-1220, 2012.
â€¢ Ceballos, L.S., E.R. Morales, G.T. Adarve, J.D. Castro, L.P. Martinez, and M.R.Z. Sampelyo, Composition of goat and cow milk production under similar conditions and analyzed by identical methodology, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22, 322-329, 2009.
â€¢ Elamin, R.M, Evaluation of hygiene and chemical composition of milk from sale points in Khartoum State. M.Sc., Thesis, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Sudan, 2004.
â€¢ Fox, P.F., and P.L.H McSweeney, Dairy chemistry and Bio chemistry. Springer Science and Business Media, Kluwer Academic, Plenum Publishers, New York, 1995.
â€¢ Hattem, H.E., A.T. Taleb, A.N. Manal, and S.S. Hanaa, Effect of pasteurization and season on milk composition and ripening of Ras cheese, Journal of Brewing and Distilling, 3 (2), 15-22, 2012.
â€¢ Hossain, M.B., and S.R. Dev, Physiochemical characteristics of various raw milk samples in a selected dairy plant of Bangladesh, International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1 (3), 91-96, 2013.
â€¢ Hossain, T.J., K. Alam, and D.Sikdar, Chemical and microbiological quality assessment of raw and processed liquid market milk of Bangladesh, Research Journal of Dairy Sciences, 4 (4), 28-34, 2011.
â€¢ Javaid, S.B., J.A. Gadahi, M.M.B. Khaskeli, S. Kumbber, and A.H.Panhwar, Physical and chemical quality of market milk sold at Tandojam, Pakistan vet. J., 29 (1), 27-31, 2009.
â€¢ Mohamed, N.N.I., and I.E.M. El Zubeir, Evaluation of the hygienic quality of market milk of Khartoum State (Sudan), International Journal of Dairy Sciences, 2 (1), 33-41, 2007.
â€¢ Nickerson, S.C., Milk production, factors affecting milk composition in milk quality edited by Harding, F.A. Aspen publishers, 3-23, 1999.
â€¢ Negash, F., E, Tadesse, and T.Woldu, Microbial quality and chemical composition of raw milk in the Mid-Rift Valley of Ethiopia, African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7 (29), 4167-4170, 2012.
â€¢ Shojaeai, Z.A, and A.Yadollahi, Physicochemical and microbiological quality of raw, pasteurized milk and UHT milks in shops, Asian journal of scientific research, 1 (5), 532-538, 2008.
â€¢ Soomro, A., M. Khammad A.M., S.G. Memon, Barham, I. Ul Haq, N.S. Fazlani, I. Alikhan, G.M. Locji, and N.R. Soomro, Study on adulteration and composition of milk sold at Badin, International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences, 2(9), 57-70, 2014.
â€¢ Tasci, F., Microbiological and chemical properties of raw milk consumed in Burder, J of animal and veterinary Advanced, 10 (5), 635-641, 2011.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.