Quality Evaluation of Blends and Cookies from Wheat/ African Fan Palm Shoot Flours


  • M. I. Yusufu Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Idah
  • J. O. Abu


African fan palm shoots, wheat flour, cookies, Physico - chemical and functional properties, proximate and mineral compositions, sensory properties


African fan palm shoots (AFS) were processed into flour. The flour was blended with wheat flour in the ratio of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100, wheat : African fan palm shoot flour. Functional and physico-chemical properties of the flours were evaluated. The flour blends were used to produce cookies using standard method. The physical properties, proximate and mineral compositions of the cookies as well as sensory properties of the cookies were determined. The vitamin C content generally increased while the total sugar decreased as the proportion of AFP increased in the blends. The titratable acidity increased while the pH decreased as the level of AFS increases in the blends. The functional properties of the flours and the blends showed that the water absorption capacities increased while the oil absorption capacities decreased as the level of AFP increased and ranged from 52.50 - 60.21% and 85.00 - 89.80% respectively. The emulsion capacity and gelation concentration increased while the bulk densities decreased as the proportion of AFS flour increased and the values ranged from 51.25-58.33%, 8.0 - 16% (w/v) and 0.79- 0.62 (g/cm3) respectively. The results for proximate showed that the moisture, fiber and protein content decreases as the proportion of (AFS) increased and ranged from 6.02 - 13 00%, 2.15 – 2.42% and 10.48 – 8.22% respectively. The ash, Fat and carbohydrates increases as proportion of AFS increased and ranged from 2.50 – 3.10%, 1.80 – 5.40% and 69.80 -75.11% respectively. The results of the mineral composition of cookie samples shows that Mg, Ca and Mn content ranged from 150.33 – 406.28mg/100g, 55.25 – 884.40 mg/100g, and 5.20 – 10.56mg/100g respectively. The control sample (100% wheat cookie) has the least (p<0.05) amounts of Mg, Ca and Mn. The values for Na, K and P shows that the amount ranged from 8.22- 24.32mg/100g 432.63 - 450.50 mg/100g and 107.05 – 350.12mg/100g respectively. The control sample (100% wheat cookie) has the highest (p<0.05) amounts of Na, K and P. The physical characteristics shows that AFP cookies (0%, 25% and 50%) were significantly (P<0.05) heavier than cookies with 75% and 100% AFP. The diameters and densities of the cookies generally increased as the proportion of AFP flour increased in the cookies and were significantly (P<.0.05) affected. The percent cook yield decreases as the proportion of APS flour increases in the cookies. The sensory evaluation results showed that there was progressive decreased in all the sensory ratings as the level of African fan palm flour increased but up to 50 % inclusion did not adversely affect the sensory ratings. The study indicates that vitamin C enriched composite flours, Mg, Ca and Mn enriched cookies can be prepared from blends of wheat/ APS flour and up to 25 % inclusion of African palm shoot flour in wheat does not adversely affect the sensory characteristics of the cookies.



Akubor, P.I and D. Yusufu Proximate composition and some functional properties of flour from the kernel of African star apple Chrysophyllual albidum. International J. of Agric. Policy and Research. 1 (3): 62- 66. 2003

Dotsey, P. The Use of Cocoyam, Cassava and Wheat flour Composition in the Production of Rock cakes, HND Dissertation, Cape Coast Polytechnic, Cape Coast, Ghana, 1:7 – 40. 2009.

Layne, D. R.The Pawpaw: A new fruit crop for Kentucky and the United State. Hort-Science 31:777-784.1996

Akpata, M.I; P.I.Akubor. Chemical composition and selected functional properties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seed flour. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 54: 353 -362. 1999

Arogba, S.S. Physical, chemical and functional properties of Nigeria mango (Mangifera indica) kernel and its processed flour. J. Sci. Food Agric. 73:321-328. 1997

Arogba,S.S. Quality characteristics of a model biscuit containing processed mango (Mangifera indica) kernel flour. Int. J. Food Properties 5(2): 249-260. 2002.

Yusufu; M.I and A.O Akhigbe. The production of pawpaw enriched cookies : Functional, Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Asian J. Agriculture and Food Sc. 2 (2): 100-106

WHO/FAO. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. World Health Organization Technical Report. Series 916. WHO Geneva. 2003

Morris, A; A. Barnett and O. J. Burrow. Effect of Processing on the Nutritive Content of Fruit and

Vegetables.2ndedn. New York Prints Pp 45-46. ISBN 98-2342-23-91. 2004

Nishibori, S and Kawakisi, S. Effects of dough materials on the flavour formation in baked cookies. J. Food Sci.: 409-412. 1990.

Akpapunam, M. A. and J. W. Darbe. Chemical Composition and Functional Properties of Maize and Bambara groundnut for Cookies Production. Plant Food for Human Nutri 56:195-202. 1994.

Okaka, J.C. and N. N. Potter. Pysicochemical and Functional Property of Cowpea powder Processed to reduce Beany flavour. Journal of food science 44; 1235 – 1240. 1997.

AACC. Approved Methods of American Association of Cereal Chemistry, 10thedn.The American Association of Cereal Chemistry, Inc. St. Paul, MN. 2000.

AOAC .Official Methods of Analysis (17th) Association of Official Analytical Chemistry (AOAC). Washington DC 2010

Onwuka, G. I. Food Analysis and Instrumentation (Theory and practice). 1stedn. Napthal; Prints, Surulere Lagos, Nigeria Pp 140 – 160. 2005

Steel, R.G.D and J.H. Torrie. Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometric approach. 2nd edn. Auckland, New Zealand. McGraw Hill. 1980.

Gordon, M.S. Simulation tools for the thermal processing of foods. Food Technol. Info. 8: 100- 103. 1993.

Akpata, M. I and O.T.Miahci. Physicochemical composition and selected functional properties for cola milinii fruits. J. Manag. Technolo. 1(1): 54-58. 1999

Onimawo, I. A. and P. I. Akubor. Food Chemistry Integrated Approach with Biochemical Background. AMBIK Press. Benin City, Nigeria. 2005.

Akubor, P.I; and J.I. Eze. Quality evaluation and cake making potential of sun and oven dried carrot fruit. Int. J. Biosci. 2 (10): 19 -27. 2012

Kinsella J.E. Functional properties of protein in foods. CRC Critical Rev. Food Sci. Nutri. 7: 219-232. 1987.

Sathe, A.K; S.S Deshphande and D.K Salunkhe . Functional properties of lupin seed protein and protein concentrates. J. Food Sci. 42: 491-492.1982

Cutberson; W. F. What is Health Food? Food Chemistry. 33 (1) : 53 – 80. 1997

Alobo; A. P. Physical, Chemical and Organoleptic Properties of Cookies Prepaered from maize and Jack beans. J. Management and Tech. 6; 1 -3. 2006




How to Cite

Yusufu, M. I., & Abu, J. O. (2014). Quality Evaluation of Blends and Cookies from Wheat/ African Fan Palm Shoot Flours. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(6). Retrieved from https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAFS/article/view/1989