Development of A Pressurized Hydrolysis Method for Producing Glucosamine


  • Eko Cahyono Department of Aquatic Products Technology, Bogor Agricultural University
  • Pipih Suptijah
  • Ietje Wientarsih


glucosamine, low-pressure extraction, quality, osteoarthritis


Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability in the elderly. The consumption of glucosamine is one way to reduce the effects of osteoarthritis, and the global demand for glucosamine is constantly increasing. Thus there is a need to develop production methods which can produce high quality glucosamine in large quantities. The goal of this research was to develop a safe, practical, and efficient glucosamine hydrochloride production method through the use of low-pressure hydrolysis and to analyse the characteristics of the glucosamine produced. The pressurised hydrolysis method used was applied with various combinations of heating time and acid concentration. The extraction used 30 g of chitosan in hydrochloric acid (HCl), with a ratio of 1:9. HCl concentrations were 5%, 8% and 10% with heating times of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes at a pressure of 0,5 ATM. The treatment using 5% HCl concentration for 60 minutes produced the best glucosamine hydrochloride. The glucosamine rendement was 65,33%, with 96.33% solubility, a pH of 5,66, LoD of 0,60%, and LoI of 0,23%. The FTIR spectrum absorption pattern showed 99,44% compliance with the standard, proving that the glucosamine hydrolysis was successful.


[EFSA] European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucosamine hydrochloride and reduced rate of cartilage degeneration and reduced risk of development of osteoarthritis pursuant Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). EFSA Journal 2009; 7(10):1358

[FDA] Food and Drug Administration. 2004. REGENASURETM Glucosamine

Brief AA, Maurer SG, DiCesare PE. 2001. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in the management of osteoarthritis. J of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. 2001;9. Hal 71-78.

Brugnerottoa J, Lizardib J, Goycooleab FM, ArguÈelles-Monalc W, DesbrieÃresa J, Rinaudoa M. 2001. An infrared investigation in relation with chitin and chitosan Characterization. J Polymer. 42(2001)3569-3580.

Camara, Da CC, Dowless GV. 1998. Glucosamine sulfate for osteoarthritis. [Non-systematic Review]. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. May 1998;32. Hal 580-587.

Chang Y.F., Sitanggang A.B. and Wu H.S. 2011. Optimizing biotechnologial production of glucosamine as food ingredient from Aspergillus sp. BCRC 31742. Journal of Food Technology, 9(2): 75-82.

Ileleji KE, Gracia AA, Kingsly ARP, Clemetson CL. 2010. Comparation of standart moisture loss on drying methods for determination of moisture content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles. J of AOAC International. vol. 93 No. 3.

Jamailahmadi K, Behravan J, Najafi M F, Yazdi M T, Shahverdi A R, Faramarzi M A. 2011. Enzymatic production of N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine from chitin using crude enzyme preparation of Aeromonas sp. PTCC1691. Journal Biotechnology. 10(3): 292-297.

Kelly G.S. 1998. The role of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of degenerative joint disease. Alternative Medicine Review, 3(1): 27-39.

Kralovec A. Barrow C.J. 2008. Glucosamine Production and Health Benefits. In: Barrow C, Shahidi F, editors. Marine Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, Florida, USA. pp198-227

Mahajan A, Verma S, Tandon V. 2005. Osteoarthritis. JAPI. vol. 53.

Martin W, Craing. 2004. Glucosamine: Review of its effectiveness in treating knee osteoarthritis. WCB Evidence Based Practice Group.

Mojarrad J.S., Nemati M., Valizadeh H., Ansarin M. and Bourbour S. 2007. Preparation of Glucosamine from Exoskeleton of Shrimp and Predicting Production Yield by response surface methodology. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 55 (6): 2246-2250.

Rokhati N. 2006. Pengaruh derajat deasetilasi khitosan dari kulit udang terhadap aplikasinya sebagai pengawet makanan. Reaktor, 10 (2): 54-58

Santisteban JI, Mediavilla R, pez-Pamo EO, Dabrio CJ, Zapata MBR, Garcıa MJG, Castan S, Alfaro PEM. 2004. Loss on ignition: a qualitative or quantitative method for organic matter and carbonate mineral content in sediments.

Sibi G., Dhananjaya K., Ravikumar K.R., Mallesha H., Venkatesha R.T., Trivedi D., Bhusal K.P., Neeraj and Gowda K. 2013. Preparation of Glucosamine Hydrochloride from Crustacean Shell Waste and It’s Quantitation by RP-HPLC. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 8 (2): 63-67.

Sitanggang A.B., Sophia L., Wu H.S. 2012. Aspects of glucosamine production using microorganisms. International Food Research Journal, 19(2): 393-404.

[SNI] Standar Nasional Indonesia. 2004. Air dan air limbah bagian 11: Cara uji derajat keasaman pH dengan menggunakan alat pH meter. Jakarta (ID).

Zhou1 C, Sui Q, Sun N, Wang J, Huang K, Che H. 2013. Glucosamine Sodium Sulfate Can Penetrate Skin and May Affect Glucose Metabolism in Rats. J Drug Metab Toxicol. ISSN: 2157-7609 JDMT, an open access journal.




How to Cite

Cahyono, E., Suptijah, P., & Wientarsih, I. (2014). Development of A Pressurized Hydrolysis Method for Producing Glucosamine. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(5). Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)