A Review on the Development of Integrated Pest Management and Its Integration in Modern Agriculture
Keywords:Integrated pest management, Pest control, Pesticides, Pest resistance, Environment, Human health, Agriculture.
Different to the eradication method applied in traditional farming, the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a system for managing pests in agricultural production that employs multiple tactics in consideration of economic, environmental, ecological and human health impacts. This paper presents an overview of the important milestones in the development of the IPM philosophy, evolving from a specific level of pest control that focuses on suppression of target pests to a more eco-friendly and/or systems approach of pest management where a range of non-chemical options and judicious use of pesticides are utilized. Moreover, some main driving forces that led to the development of the philosophy are analyzed and evaluated, including pest resistance, adverse impacts on environment, biodiversity, ecosystems and human health, and public reactions. Finally, this paper describes how it has been embraced in modern agriculture. Recent technological advances in crop protection using computer aids in forecasting, biotechnology in producing resistant cultivars, semiochemicals, natural enemies, selective pesticides, traps cropping and habitat management are also reviewed as a new trend in modern crop protection.
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