Influence of Oral Supplementation with Whey on Egg Quality Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition
Keywords:Whey, Egg yolks, Hens, Volatile profile, Quality.
The effects of whey supplementation on egg quality characteristics and fatty acid composition were studied. A total of 240 ISA hens were used and divided into two uniform groups: for the experiment group was used a solution of water 10% and whey 90% while for the control group was used pure water (100 %). Eggs were collected daily after 30 days of feeding and stored at 4 Â°C during the experiment. Lastly eggs were boiled in water at 100 Â°C for 10 minutes and then be analyzed (0 days). The advance of the oxidative state was also assessed at 6 days after cooking. The whey supplementation carried out egg yolks with different % of some volatile compounds and similar lipids and fatty acid composition compared to samples coming from the control group. The colour and lipid oxidative stability of egg yolk are significantly different between the two groups. MDA value was lower in the experimental group, while the colour was higher than the control, probably due to an antioxidant effect of some compounds present in the whey. Supplementation of whey in the diet of laying hens has positive effects on the quality of eggs, especially on oxidative stability.
Ahn, D. U., Olson, D. G., Lee, J. I., Jo, C., Chen, X., and Wu, C. (1998). Packaging and
irradiation effects on lipid oxidation and volatiles in pork patties. J. Food Sci. 63:15â€“19.
Cherian, G., Goeger, M. P., & Ahn, D. U. (2002). Dietary conjugated linoleic acid with fish oil
alters yolk n-3 and trans fatty acid content and volatile compounds in raw, cooked, and irradiated
eggs. Poultry science, 81(10), 1571-1577.
Cobos, A., De la Hoz, L., Cambero, M. I., & OrdÃ³Ã±ez, J. A. (1995). Dietary modification and hen
strain dependence of egg yolk lipids. Food research international, 28(1), 71-76.
FAO. (2006). Food outlook no. 2, December 2006 /http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/
Fearne, A., & Lavelle, D. (1996). Perceptions of food â€œqualityâ€ and the power of marketing
communication: results of consumer research on a branded-egg concept. Journal of Product &
Brand Management, 5(2), 29-42.
Folch J., Lees M., Stanley S.G.H. (1957)-A sample method for purification of total lipides from
animal tissues. J.Biol. Chem., 226, 497-509
Gaenzle, M. G., Haase, G., & Jelen, P. (2008). Lactoseâ€”Crystallization, hydrolysis and value-
added derivatives. International Dairy Journal, this issue, doi:10.1016/ j.idairyj.2008.03.003.
Gianelli, M.P., FlÃ²res, M., ToldrÃ¡, F. (2002). Optimisation of solid phase microextraction
(SPME) for the analysis of volatile compounds in dry-cured ham. Journal of the Science of Food
and Agriculture 82: 1703-1709.
Ha, E., & Zemel, M. B. (2003). Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential
amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people (review). The Journal of
nutritional biochemistry, 14(5), 251-258.
Hoffmann, K. F. (1961). On the history of whey cures, especially in the 17th, 18th, and 19th
centuries. Medizinische Monatsschrift, 15, 411â€“414 (in German).
Jackson, D. W., Law, G. R. and Nockels C. F. (1978). Natural vitamin E alteration of passively
acquired immunity of chicks. Poultry Sci. 57:70â€“73.
Kovats, E. (1958). Gas-chromatographische Charakterisierung organischer Verbindungen. Teil
: Retentionsindices aliphatischer Halogenide, Alkohole, Aldehyde und Ketone. Helv. Chim.
Acta 41: 1915-32.
Meynier, A., Genot, C., and Gandemer, G. (1999). Oxidation of muscle phospholipids in relation
to their fatty acid composition with emphasis on volatile compounds. J. Sci. Food Agric.
Peters, H.C. (2005). Economic aspects of cheese making as influenced by whey processing
options. International dairy Journal 15: 537-545.
Siso, M. I. G. (1996). The biotechnological utilization of cheese whey: A review. Bioresource
Technology, 57, 1â€“11.
Smithers, G. W. (2008). Whey and whey proteinsâ€”from â€˜gutter-to-goldâ€™. International Dairy
Journal, 18(7), 695-704.
Tarladgis, B.G., Watts, B.M., & Younathan, M.T. (1960). A distillation method for the
quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. The Journal of the American Oil
Chemistsâ€™ Society 37: 44-48.
Volkamer, R., Jimenez, J. L., San Martini, F., Dzepina, K., Zhang, Q., Salcedo, D., ... & Molina,
M. J. (2006). Secondary organic aerosol formation from anthropogenic air pollution: Rapid and
higher than expected. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(17).
Vuilleumier, J. P. 1969. The Roche yolk color fanâ€”An instrument for measuring yolk color.
Poultry Sci. 48:767â€“779.
Yetim, H., MÃ¼ller, W.D., Eber, M. (2001). Using fluid whey in comminuted meat products:
effects on technological, chemical and sensory properties of frankfurter-type sausages. Food
Research International, 34, 97-101.
Zadow, J. G. (1994). Utilization of milk components: Whey. In R. K. Robinson (Ed.), Modern
dairy technology, advances in milk processing, Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). Pp. 313â€“373. London, UK:
Chapman & Hall.
How to Cite
- Papers must be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis) and are not currently under consideration by another journal published by any other publisher.
- It is also the authors responsibility to ensure that the articles emanating from a particular source are submitted with the necessary approval.
- The authors warrant that the paper is original and that he/she is the author of the paper, except for material that is clearly identified as to its original source, with permission notices from the copyright owners where required.
- The authors ensure that all the references carefully and they are accurate in the text as well as in the list of references (and vice versa).
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.