A Review of Plants’ Flowering Physiology: The Control of Floral Induction by Juvenility, Temperature and Photoperiod in Annual and Ornamental Crops

Tuan Minh Ha


Recent market demands have led to extended cropping seasons and off-season production of various plant species, especially ornamental plants. Understanding of genetic control of flowering, developmental stages and environmental requirements of crops is important to develop appropriate production guidelines and novel varieties. This paper presents a review of some main factors, including juvenility, vernalization, photoperiod and their interactions in control of flowering in plants. Length of juvenile stage may vary among species. Understanding of juvenility may help define appropriate time when they can perceive external stimuli for efficient flower induction and subsequent development. Based on the requirements and responses to temperature and photoperiods for floral initiation, plant species are categorized into different groups. Modifications of temperature range and/or vernalization, duration and regimes in accordance with day-lengths at receptive stage would be important techniques to produce flowers at a desired time of the year. In addition, genetic modifications applied in breeding together with some cultivation techniques to regulate flowering time in some crops are also discussed in this paper.


Flowering, juvenility, temperature, vernalization, photoperiod.

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